What are the meaning of the original Greek word?
Perfect, according to Bible hud Strongs concordance, 5046 is τέλειος/ teleios and it’s an adjective.
teleios: having reached its end, i.e. complete, by ext. perfect
Depending on the context, according to Bible hub Strongs concordance, Teleios/perfect can mean (a) complete in all its parts, (b) full grown, of full age, (c) specially of the completeness of Christian character.
1 corinthians 13: 8Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. 9For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. 10But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. 11When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. 12For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. 13And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.
#1 What does the perfect refer to?
In light of these gifts: Prophecy, Knowledge and Tongues; the perfect τέλειος/teleios, cessationist say that it means the Bible/New Testament.
Nevertheless, verse 13, “And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity”; the now is charity/love.
Therefore, the perfect is not the New testament because the perfect comes in the future.
1 corinthians 1:7 “so as for you not to be lacking in any gift…” We, and the Corinthians, had/have all the gifts χάρισμα/charisma, all the spiritual endowments or gifts which are available to us by the Lord’s grace and the Spirit of God who gives them; some Christians may have this gift or that gift even may have more than one gift, accordingly to the Spirit’s will (1 Corinthians 12:7-11); Lord parable on the talents: Matthew 25:14-30 Luke 19:11-27.
However, we are, continuing verse 7 “…eagerly await the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ” (BLB). Thus, that Perfect come is the Lord Jesus Christ when he appears for the 2nd Advent or Coming.
Thus, the Perfect refers to Christ.
#2 should the perfect be interpreted in an Eschatological sense?
Yes, the perfect should be understood in an Eschatological sense for when that which is perfect is come,
Notice, verse 10, when that which is perfect is come; the Perfect has not come yet, it is future.
Look at verse 12, the for now and the then; now is at present to our time; the then takes place when verse 10 that perfect comes, Christ 2nd Advent.
for now we see through a glass darkly; but then face to face. This proves the perfect is a Person not the Bible/New Testament.
#3 What will cease when the perfect comes?
Verse 10, then that which is in part shall be done away: the knowledge, prophecy and tongues; we have no need for these parts, for we shall have the completion of all things here with us. When we are face-to-face with our Lord, Jesus Christ, that’s when the gifts will stop/ceased.
Verse 8, “but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail” they shall fail-καταργέω/katargeó meaning to be inoperative, useless and or abolished; this verbs is referring to the noun, prophecies.
Also, “whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away” it shall vanish away is a verb that refers to the Knowledge; it is the same verb meaning as above, katargeó, that is, knowledge will be rendered inoperative or abolished
However, “We know in part, and we prophesy in part,” Prophecies and the general knowledge of those prophecies, will still come to pass, even though the Lord/the perfect has come/returned.
The difference is we/the saints will no longer be tongues speaking, prophesying nor giving any knowledge when Christ returns.
The past prophets prophecies will still come to pass, in that time, Jesus Christ’s Return.
For example, in the book of Ezekiel chapter 38, the Lord God had returned, and the Lord points out Himself that these things happening was prophesied before in time past: concerning Gog, from the north parts, those with him, a great company.
Ezekiel 38:16 And thou shalt come up against my people of Israel, as a cloud to cover the land; it shall be in the latter days, and I will bring thee against my land, that the heathen may know me, when I shall be sanctified in thee, O Gog, before their eyes.
17 Thus saith the Lord GOD; Art thou he of whom I have spoken in old time by my servants the prophets of Israel, which prophesied in those days many years that I would bring thee against them?
Difference between tongues, from knowledge and prophecies, tongues will stop or cease upon Christ Second Advent; for the saints won’t be speaking in tongues, a foreign language and or a tongue giving for knowledge; the saints will have that Perfect one, Christ; however, past prophecies and the Knowledge of that prophecy will be in effect.
The saints who prophecy or by God’s Spirit was given Knowledge will have none of these gifts for it will be inoperative or abolished: for a saint/prophet to utilize.
#4 what is the significance of the transitive verb παύσονται?
The transitive verb παύσονται refers to tongues, the noun.
In verse 9 of 1 corinthians 13, the verb there, accordant to Bible hub Strongs concordance definition, to stop (transitively or intransitively), i.e. Restrain, quit, desist, come to an end -- cease, leave, refrain.
The verb παύσονται means they shall cease, relates to the tongues which is the noun or substantive: it is the direct object of the transitive verb, they shall cease, is referring to.
#5 What does ἐκ μέρους mean?
According to Bible hub NAS exhaustive concordance, V. Adverbial phrases: #3 “of the measure or standard: ἐκ μέρους, so that each is a part of the whole, Meyer at the passage; in part, partly, 1 Corinthians 13:9ff; ἐκ μέτρου”
“So that each is a part of the whole” the in part, part meaning a portion or share, is the knowledge or prophesy that comprises the whole.
The whole deals with Jesus Christ which knowledge or prophesies point to Him, hence, He is the Perfect or the teleios: having reached its end or goal.
Those other parts are inoperative or abolished; the Lord is the consummated goal of prophecies, knowledge, Scriptures for all these parts points to Him. John 5:39,46,47 & Luke 24:25, 26,27:
John 5:39 “Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.”
46 For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.
47 But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?
Luke 24: 25 Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:
26 Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?
27 And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
#6 How should “out of” be translated?
1 Corinthians 13:9 translation is fine how it reads.