As noted the meaning of the phrase σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι may be indirectly related to Luke’s description of the resurrection and if so raises a question of Luke's Passover narrative:
Chrysostom's Homily indicates two consecutive Sabbath days - then one would expect the same construction in the Byzantine version of Luke's Passion narrative - if-and only-if : the Weekly Sabbath was preceded by the Passover Sabbath.
While this question has been posed as different from a similar question: What does sabbaton deuteroproton in Luke 6:1 refer to? it requires an understanding of the phrase σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι to answer. In addition, Chrysostom’s description of “come upon” confuses the issue of Chrysostom actually means. Does he see σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι as a single day where an annual day of no work coincided with a weekly Sabbath? Or does he see it as two consecutive days, an annual day of no work followed by a weekly Sabbath (what Luke describes after the crucifixion)?
While Chrysostom’s meaning is uncertain and an answer as to what he meant is speculative, the question can be answered at least in a general sense. In other words, if Luke chose to describe the events of disciples picking ears of corn (which occurred on two Sabbaths) does his choice of language there have any bearing on how he chose to describe the events after the crucifixion?
The first thing to note is that while Luke uses the phrase σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι, he is in fact describing something that took place on a single day:
Luke 6:1, Byzantine Text - And it came to pass on the Double Sabbath that Jesus was passing through the grain fields ...
This differs from the events after the crucifixion which Luke describes as taking place on consecutive days:
One day: And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the σάββατον (Sabbath day) according to the commandment. (Luke 23:56 KJV)
The Next Day: Now upon the first day of the σαββάτων (week – Sabbaths), very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them. (Luke 24:1 KJV)
Even if the meaning of σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι is the same in both situations, describing events on each of the different days requires a different use of language. σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι following the crucifixion would not make sense since something was done on one day and something different done on the next day. Therefore, regardless of how Chrysostom understood Luke 6:1, it should not have any bearing on the two consecutive Sabbaths found in the Passover narrative.
It also suggests an alternative explanation to the meaning of phrase σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι. Luke uses this to describe an event similar to one in Matthew and Mark:
Now it happened on the second Sabbath (σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι – Sabbaths double) after the first that He went through the grainfields. And His disciples plucked the heads of grain and ate them, rubbing them in their hands. And some of the Pharisees said to them, “Why are you doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath (σάββασιν - Sabbaths)?” (Luke 6:1-2 NKJV)
At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the Sabbath (σάββασιν - Sabbaths). And His disciples were hungry, and began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. And when the Pharisees saw it, they said to Him, “Look, Your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath! (σαββάτῳ - Sabbaths)” (Matthew 12:1-2 NKJV)
Now it happened that He went through the grainfields on the Sabbath (σάββασιν – Sabbaths); and as they went His disciples began to pluck the heads of grain. And the Pharisees said to Him, “Look, why do they do what is not lawful on the Sabbath? (σάββασιν – Sabbaths)” (Mark 2:23-24 NKJV)
Each of the three accounts describe similar events which take place on the Sabbaths plural, not Sabbath singular as found in English translations. In each case the Pharisees ask why Jesus permits His disciples do do something which they believe should not be done on the Sabbaths (plural). In each case Jesus gives an answer and in each case the answer is different.
If the language is taken for what it says, then Luke, Matthew, and Mark are describing similar events which took place on different Sabbath Days. If that is the case then Luke’s σαββάτῳ διαπορεύεσθαι which means Sabbaths double could be Luke’s way to place the event he is describing in the context of Matthew’s or Mark’s. In other words, Jesus permitted His disciples to do what the Pharisee’s saw as a violation of Sabbath ordnances and He did this on more than one Sabbath.
Therefore Luke records something which occurred (again) after what took place on the Sabbaths found in Matthew and Mark; the next (consecutive) Sabbath it happened again that Jesus let His disciples do something the Pharisees saw as wrong.