Backround of Zech. 8:23
Zechariah 8:23 is a prophetic passage; Zechariah prophesied to the post-exile Jews during the reign of Darius the Great(522-486BC). The call to come back and inhabit Jerusalem had already been given by Cyrus the Persian in 538BC; Ezra the Scribe had led the 1st group of captives back which included Jeshua, son of Jozedak and Zerubbabel, son of Shealtiel; who both figure prominently in Zechariah as the High Priest and Governor, respectively.(Zech. 3,4/Ezra 3:2)
What was apparent was that all the Jews did not return from exile; it is estimated that perhaps 25% returned. The prophecy can in no way be said to be fulfilled in that passage, because " It shall yet come to pass, that there shall come people"(יָבֹ֣אוּ- shall come)(KJV/HB). Therefore, as we continue to read Zechariah, we must be mindful of "Future Fulfillment".
Numerous Commentaries have weighed in concerning the fulfillment of this passage: whether you ascribe to the Preterist, Idealist, Futurist, or Historicist view, is how you will interpret this passage. Preterist are either silent, or take the view of fulfillment during Zechariah's time. The Idealist are perhaps the most prominent, stating that this prophecy is "fulfilled in Christ" and pointing to those who "would grab the skirt of Christ", who is a Jew-the 10 being "symbolic" of the Gentile nations.(See Gill's Commentary)
Zech. 8:23 for Dispensationalists refers to the Millenial Reign of Christ on the earth. The "Church" has been raptured, yet there is the Nation of Israel, and those 'Gentile' nations who've survived the Tribulation, and now have the expressed command to "Go Up" to Jerusalem and celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles,
And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the
nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to
year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of
tabernacles. 17And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the
families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of
J. Dwight Pentecost says,
So all Jews will be highly respected by Gentile peoples of all nations
as God's mortal human representatives of God on earth during our
LORD's millennial rule.(From Things to Come-pg. 507)
A Futurist view susbscribes to the Millenial Reign, yet doesn't exclude the church.
Historicist view basically establishes that Revelation is being fulfilled throughout history, and not isolated to "Pre-70AD" or "Post-Rapture".
Understanding of "10" in Prophecy
There are numerous examples of "10" being used in scripture:
10 months had elapsed before the trees were seen again, during the Great Flood(Gen. 8:5)
10 Righteous Men would have spared Sodom and Gomorrah(Gen. 18:22)-this is important because 10 men(women today) form a "minyan", the minimum requirement that a service can be held. It also relates to "10" sons of Jacob who traveled to Egypt(minus Joseph and Benjamin).
Abraham gave a 10th of all he possesed to Melchizek (Gen. 14:10) which is a prefigurement of Christ(Heb. 7:3) This same principle was expanded in the Law(Lev. 27:30) and in the New Testament(Heb. 7:8)
Abrahm's servant took 10 camels to Nahor, and gave Rebekah 2 bracelets weighing 10 shekels; he waited 10 days for Rebekah to say goodbye before she left with him.(Gen. 24:55)
Jacob's wages were changed 10 times by Laban(Gen. 31:7)
Joseph sent Jacob 10 asses(male and female)(Gen. 45:23)
10 curtains of linen surrounded the Tabernacle(Ex. 26:1)
The Ten Commandments-written by the finger of God(Ex. 34:28)
Day of Atonement was on the 10th day of the 7th month(Lev. 23:27)
10 shekels was evaluated the price of redemption for a female(Lev. 27:5)
The children of Israel tempted God 10 times in the wilderness(Num. 14:22)
10 spies, who weakened the will of Israel(Num. 13:32)
Moabite, Ammonite, or illegitimate child won't enter the congregation of the Lord for 10 generations(Deut. 23:2-3)
There are too numerous to mention other examples of '10' concerning offerings, portions assigned; Elkanah said to Hannah, "Am I not better than 10 sons?"(1 Sam. 1:8) "Ten" in each of these references is the number of "Man"; a man has 10 fingers, 10 toes. The 10 Commandments are the requirements of all men to abide by, our laws are based on them.
"10" in this instance is symbolic, as there are obviously more than 10 men from every nation. What is interesting is the concept of "minyan" representing 10. Can this passage be interpreted as every "group of 10" will be acknowledged by the Lord and His Apostles who will judge the 12 tribes of Israel(Matt. 19:28), along with those who dwell in Israel? Clearly, this passage references to Rom. 11:26, when the "natural branches" get grafted back in their own olive tree(vs 24).
10 is the number of man; in this instance the context is figurative since it is obvious from the passage that more than 10 men are on the earth(apart from Israel) at that time. I believe the "10" also refers to congregations which will receive Divine Direction and guidance from Jerusalem during the Millenial Reign.