It is ridiculous to adapt complex European linguistic conventions to Indonesian or to biblical Hebrew. We should just read biblical Hebrew at its face value, and refrain from concocting an obfuscating web of non-existent rules to make the Hebrew of the Bible enunciate the doctrine we have already decided what we want the Bible to say. And then backpedal to concoct complex exceptions to those rules, when we find instances in the Hebrew of the Bible not falling into our concocted rules.
Like as though the sheep herders 2000 - 3000 years ago actually communicated with all these complex rules we imbue upon them, and then ignore the existence of non-absolute tensed languages that exist today.
This is another compulsive evidence towards the invalidity of the inversive-vav aka vav-inversion aka conversive-vav theory.
Reading thro the Bible, you can see that the inversive-vav theory is inconsistently applied, and even applied when there is no vav present.
It is not acceptable for us to try to force the mold of Romance/Greek grammar onto biblical Hebrew.
Biblical Hebrew is a sequentially tensed stative language
There is no past-present-future tenses in biblical Hebrew. Biblical Hebrew is a sequentially "tensed" language. Like Indonesian/Malay is. Perhaps, like Chinese. They have no absolute tenses like in Greek or English, except for a couple of explicit temporal adverbs that would force a change in the temporal location of a sentence.
Without the presence of such rarely used temporal adverbs, the time reference of a phrase/sentence is relative to the previous phrase/sentence.
For example, since modern Indonesian/Malay grammar is creole derivative of Quranic Arabic and Persian, you will find similarity in it with biblical Hebrew grammar. Like biblical Hebrew, it has stative (stating the action) and incomplete modes.
- Tahun dulu, dia membuka (stative, buka=open, membuka=causative, cause to open) kedai baru.
- In English, we are forced to translate the stative into past tense.
Last year, he/she opened a new shop.
- dimana (di=Aramaic locative, mana=where) dijualkan (jual=sell, dijual=passive, dijualkan=imperfect) jenis buah-buahan (reduplicative of fruit=various fruits).
- In English we are forced to translate the incomplete passive as a past participle
where is-sold types of fruits.
- Disana, kita membelikan buah nenas untuk sembahyang ke nenek-moyang minggu dulu.
- Again in English, we are forced to translate an incomplete into past tense.
There, we bought pineapple for praying to ancestors last week.
Every verb in Hebrew is used in a "participle" form.
"יֹצֵא which is conjugated as a participle"
Actually, in Hebrew, we can look at every verb occurrence and their derivatives as a "participle".
Let me illustrate:
Which case does the phrase say?
- gerund/verbal-noun form:
they are "those-coming", they are "the-coming-ones".
- progressive-participle verb clause:
they are coming.
In biblical Hebrew, it does not make a difference. So stop reading Hebrew with the eye-glasses of English/Romance grammatical structures.
Participles, gerunds and verbal-nouns
Moreover, linguistically speaking, the word "participle" is often malapropism generically applied to participles, gerunds and verbal-nouns. They are not the same.
If we really wish to apply linguistic conventions on Hebrew, we might as well go one step further to differentiate between participles, gerunds and verbal-nouns, rather than imprecisely classifying all of them as "participles":
Frequently, we do not even know, if we could differentiate them in reading a Hebrew phrase. Just goes to say again, ditch all our Romance/Greek/English grammatical expectations at the door, especially all those modern complex linguistic rules non-existent in Hebrew 2500 years ago, when you enter into the realm of biblical Hebrew comprehension.
If you wish to know the temporal context of a verse, you most likely have to read the previous verse, and if necessary the previous to the previous verse, etc. This is due to the sequentially relative temporal context of phrases in biblical Hebrew.
The temporal context of Genesis 1 & 2 is established in Genesis 1:1.
בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ
- In the beginning G'd creates (stative) the heaven and the earth.
And the temporal reference of every sentence thereafter in the first two chapters of Genesis is sequentially relative to that verse.