If we stay with the context of these verses it is very evident that Paul was speaking about men, rulers of the time and age (this age) in which they were living when this book was written - before the passover in 55 AD (1).
The age in which they were still living in the first century AD was still the Mosaic age, which had not yet passed away, but was waxing old (Heb. 8:13). "This age" is not our age when we are reading these verses almost 2,000 years later. The demonstrative "this" indicates a close and present object to the speaker. This age was Paul's time in the first century AD under the rule and authority of the Roman empire of their day when Judea was a province of Rome.
We must stay with the context and time period of the scriptures, with the first audience perspective. Just because we are reading the English translations, doesn't mean that the common meaning today of that English usage is what it meant to them 2,000 years ago. The words have to be understood in their time frame, and in the original usage.
From the Complete Jewish Bible:
"3 Also I myself was with you as somebody weak, nervous and shaking all over from fear; 4 and neither the delivery nor the content of my message relied on compelling words of “wisdom” but on a demonstration of the power of the Spirit, 5 so that your trust might not rest on human wisdom but on God’s power."
"6 Yet there is a wisdom that we are speaking to those who are mature enough for it. But it is not the wisdom of this world or of this world’s leaders, who are in the process of passing away. 7 On the contrary, we are communicating a secret wisdom from God which has been hidden until now but which, before history began, God had decreed would bring us glory. 8 Not one of this world’s leaders has understood it; because if they had, they would not have executed the Lord from whom this glory flows. "
The Complete Jewish Bible (CJB) version is correct. Paul, a man, spoke of the human flaws and characteristics of a human messenger sent by God to speak directly to the people. The subject is men, that the word did not come through the power of men, but through the power of YHVH.
Those who were mature enough to hear it were men and women who could discern truth from lies. The wisdom of the world comes from the philosophical thoughts of men, not from God. That was Paul's point. The rulers of "this age", or as some English translations have it "this world" were those men who ruled under the Roman empire of the first century AD with expectations and authority to carry out their will and impose it upon the people. They were not demons in the sense of some ethereal, unseen evil presence.
The world rulers of that age called themselves "sons of god", and they existed under the Roman emperor cult worship of the Caesars... the "god of this age" (2 Cor. 4:4). Interpreting this as "the devil" distorts the context and leads people astray causing a great deal of confusion such as the worship of Lucifer and Satan. No such thing is meant by these verses nor by 2 Cor 4:4.
The word translated from the OT as "gods" in Psa. 82:6 meant judges of the law under the Mosaic age. The Levitical priests had been appointed by YHVH to teach His word, His law, and judge accordingly. They were representing Him to the people. Just as we are His ambassadors now under the gospel of Christ to be His priests and kings in His kingdom (2 Pet. 2:9).
John 16:11..."the ruler of this world" was still speaking of the man who held authority during that time over the people. This was either a Caesar emperor, or the high priest of the Sanhedrin (council). He was judged and would be thrown down from his position of authority which was described in prophesy as falling down to earth, or falling by the sword, or stars falling from heaven.
"But ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes." (Psa. 82:7, KJV)
"They are all hot as an oven, and have devoured their judges; all their kings are fallen: there is none among them that calleth unto me." (Hos. 7:7, KJV)
Men in authority, kings ruling kingdoms and empires sat on their thrones in their "heavenly places" (Eph. 3:10) were often referred to as "their heavens" being a ruler over a dominion, a part of the earth, a national kingdom of the entire earth that is always under YHVH's rule and kingdom. Their smaller heavens were always those that could be shaken and removed from power at God's will (Jer.24:6; 31:28).
So, stars falling from heaven, or princes falling down were removed from their positions of power and authority over the people. These are the same as Eph. 2:2 "ruler of the authority of the air" (YLT). Civil rules, regulations and governmental authority are issued by rulers of this world - men, and their rules are spoken from their mouths into the air and then written and broadcast through their national kingdoms of this world. They have authority over the air that is above their earthly kingdoms and domains. It speaks to their dominion area, not to a subset demon spiritual rule. God has never abdicated His position of rule and authority to any demon, nor to satan, the adversary (Ex. 19:5).
"For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." (Eph. 6:12, KJV)
They and we are not fighting man to man, against flesh and blood, but against the ideas and evil practices set in place by the rulers and authorities spoken of in Eph. 6:12. They operate in the heavenly places, heavenly realm of their nation / kingdom, their principalities, and are the powerful ones who commit evil deeds from their evil spirits. All men have spirits, and those that commit evil deeds and harm others are the spiritual forces of evil in that kingdom / nation, and are the darkness of this world. They are the spiritual wickedness in their high places of their positions of authority. They are the children of wrath and disobedience spreading their evil throughout their area of authority - their heaven.
"17 And I will set my face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies: they that hate you shall reign over you; and ye shall flee when none pursueth you.
18 And if ye will not yet for all this hearken unto me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins."
"19 And I will break the pride of your power; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as brass:
"20 And your strength shall be spent in vain: for your land shall not yield her increase, neither shall the trees of the land yield their fruits." (Lev. 26:17-20, KJV)
Israel's heaven and Israel's earth was their land area, their kingdom, their heavenly realm. When Israel's rulers, priests and scribes became evil, did evil things, their evil spirits were operating in the air of their territory. God punished them for their evil.
None of this speaks of demonic powers ruling over us. Evil comes from within the heart of man (Gen. 6:5; Matt. 15:19; Mark 7:21). It is men in power and authority that have succumbed to evil thoughts, greed, and lusts that become those evil spirits that we are to fight with the sword of God, with His word (Eph. 6:17).
More on this at my blog ShreddingTheVeil.org (2) (3)
1) Dating the New Testament - 1 Corinthians here
2) The God of This Age, & The Prince of The Power of The Air here
3) The Signs of Revelation - Part II: The Codes & Symbols of Nature here