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What does the Greek word ἀπαύγασμα (apaugasma) means in Hebrews 1:3?

The said Greek word was translated differently in English Versions.Some has "radiance" while others have "reflection." Which meaning was intended by the writer of Hebrews?

Hebrews 1:3 English Standard Version

He is the radiance of the glory of God and the exact imprint of his nature, and he upholds the universe by the word of his power. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high

Hebrews 1:3 International Standard Version

He is the reflection of God's glory and the exact likeness of his being, and he holds everything together by his powerful word. After he had provided a cleansing from sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Highest Majesty

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Ἀπαύγασμα, apaugasma, Goodrick-Kohlenberger [GK] G575 or Strong [S] G541, according to the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology and Exegesis, second edition, revision editor Moisés Silva, volume one, pages 440—441 (slightly expanded on first edition by R.P. Martin, vol. 2, p. 290):

Special interest attaches to ἀπαύγασμα, apaugasma, GK G575 or S G541, a term applied to the Son of God in Hebrews 1:3, ὃς ὢν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ, hos ōn apaugasma tēs doxēs kai charaktēr tēs hypostaseōs autou, literally, “who being the radiance/reflection of [God’s] glory and the impress of his being.” This statement stands in a doxological, possibly hymnic, tribute to the cosmic Christ, who is described either (a) actively, as the radiance of the divine glory, comparable to the way sunlight conveys the brightness and intensity of the sun, or (b) passively, as the reflection of that glory, comparable with the thought of Christ as the “mirror” or “image” of God (Wisdom 7:26 in the Common English Bible [2011]: She’s the brightness that shines forth from eternal light. She’s a mirror that flawlessly reflects God’s activity. She’s the perfect image of God’s goodness.). Since χαρακτήρ, charaktēr, GK G5917 or S G5481 clearly has a passive sense, many scholars understand ἀπαύγασμα, apaugasma, GK G575 or S G541 here to mean “reflection,” but a firm decision is difficult. Indeed, the distinction between these two aspects should not be pressed; in either case, the verse may be viewed as a piece of “wisdom Christology” that interprets Christ as the supreme and final revelation of the Father. (The term is used with increased frequency by early writers such as Origen [almost 30 times] and Gregory of Nyssa [about 80 times], but especially Athanasius [over 150 times]. For a valuable summary of the patristic interpretation of this statement, see Philip Edgeumbe Hughes, Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews [1977], pages 41—45.)

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    Welcome to our Biblical Hermeneutics Q&A site! Thanks for your participation here. We're a little different from a forum, so do take the site tour if you haven't already. Be sure to check out what makes us different from other sites that study the Bible. In your original answer, you included: "See the Google Books preview that displays pages 41—45." I cannot find an edition of NIDNTE with any preview at all, so please edit your answer to include the link if you have one. Thanks!
    – Dɑvïd
    Jul 9 '15 at 12:25
  • "See the Google Books preview that displays pages 41—45." refers to For a valuable summary of the patristic interpretation of this statement, see Philip Edgeumbe Hughes, Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews [1977], pages 41—45.). Here is the link: books.google.com/… and please scroll down to page 41.
    – E. Cardona
    Jul 9 '15 at 17:57
  • If the link does not work, then search for "Google Books preview" and click on "Google Books books.google.com" Type in "Philip Edgeumbe Hughes, Commentary" and click "Search Books." Click on "A Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews" and please scroll down to page 41.
    – E. Cardona
    Jul 9 '15 at 18:06

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