Rev. 1:10 I was in the spirit on the Lord’s day, and I heard behind me
a loud voice like a trumpet
Rev. 4:1 After this I looked, and there in heaven a door stood open!
And the first voice, which I had heard speaking to me like a trumpet,
said, “Come up here, and I will show you what must take place after
Rev. 1:10 ἐγενόμην ἐν πνεύματι ἐν τῇ κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἤκουσα ὀπίσω
μου φωνὴν μεγάλην ὡς σάλπιγγος
Rev. 4:1 Μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ θύρα ἠνεῳγμένη ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, καὶ ἡ
φωνὴ ἡ πρώτη ἣν ἤκουσα ὡς σάλπιγγος λαλούσης μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ λέγων· ἀνάβα
ὧδε, καὶ δείξω σοι ἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι μετὰ ταῦτα.
There are several factors to weigh in regard to who is speaking in Rev. 4:1. Starting with the assumption that Jesus Christ is speaking in Rev 1:10 it is common to view the language of Rev. 4:1 “the first voice, which I had heard speaking to me like a trumpet” as an anaphoric (backwards pointing) reference to Rev 1:10 “I heard behind me a loud voice like a trumpet.” The expression “the first voice” is understood to point in the direction of the first vision in chapter one and the repetition of formula “like a trumpet” helps to identify the first voice. This reading has found a large following. It isn’t as inevitable as it might seem at first glance.
Several Potential alternatives:
The first alternative doesn’t challenge the logic of the scenario described above. If the voice of Rev 1:10 is an angel or some other unidentified source (F. Dusterdieck:1884, pp110, 188f, H. Alford:1875 v.4 p593, H.B. Swete:1914, pp13,66) then the argument that Rev. 4:1 points to the voice in Rev 1:10 explains why the words are not marked as coming from Christ. This position is still held by some expositors see G. Beale:1999,p203 who appears to contradict himself on p. 317.
Compare F. Dusterdieck:1884 with D. Aune:1997
The voice which imparts the command, Revelation 1:11, belongs not to
“an angel speaking in the person of Christ,” nor to the angel
mentioned in Revelation 1:1, nor to God speaking in distinction from
Christ, who speaks in Revelation 1:15. It has been thought that the
voice proceeds from him whom John, Revelation 1:12 sqq., sees, and
therefore from Christ himself; but on account of Revelation 4:1, this
cannot be admitted. It is therefore, as in Revelation 4:1, Revelation
10:4; Revelation 10:8, entirely undecided as to whom this voice
F. Dusterdieck pp. 188-89
David Aune (R. H. Charles redivivus) commenting on the distinction between the first and second voice.
[Rev 4:1b] καὶ ἡ φωνὴ ἡ πρώτη ἣν ἤκουσα ὡς σάλπιγγος λαλούσης μετ᾿
ἐμοῦ λέγων ‘and the first voice, which I had heard like a trumpet
speaking to me saying’ is a “redactional gloss intended to link this
section with 1:9-20. The ‘first voice’ must be the voice in 1:10-11 …
however, the author apparently wishes to distinguish the ‘first voice’
of 1:10-11 from the ‘second voice’; i.e., the ‘first voice’ is not the
exalted Christ who summons John to the heavenly world in 4:1 but an …
‘interpreting angel.’ Though a distinction between two speakers cannot
be found in 1:9-20 (Beckwith, 436), Zahn (1:317-18), Roloff (44-45)
never the less think that the speaker in 1:11 is an angel while the he
speaker in 1:19 is Christ.”
D. Aune:1997 (Rev. WBC v1 p282)
Some further exploration of an alternative where the voice in 1:10 is not the same as the voice in 4:1. There are three issues, the discourse function of Μετὰ ταῦτα “After this” in Revelation, the meaning and reference of ἡ φωνὴ ἡ πρώτη “the first voice”, and the significance of the repetition φωνὴ … ὡς σάλπιγγος “voice … like a trumpet” in Rev. 4:1.
Μετὰ ταῦτα “After this” is a standard formula in the Apocalypse for introducing a new scene, vision or episode. It isn’t so much a pointer to what precedes as it is an announcement of a new scenario (G. Beale 1999, en loc).
It is possible that ἡ φωνὴ ἡ πρώτη “the first voice” only pertains to the current scene/vision — the first voice in this episode. If you read on in chapter four there are other voices. This voice could be understood as first in relationship to the voices of the four living beings and the twenty four elders.
The repetition of the trumpet language in Rev 4:1 might appear to uniquely identify the voice in Rev 1:10. However, John often repeats stock language which serves to enhance textual coherence without any implications being drawn in regard to referential identity such as we find in this instance.
The expression φωνὴν μεγάλην ὡς σάλπιγγος “a loud voice like a trumpet” is language that accompanies theophany and divine discourse, perhaps an allusion to Exodus 19. The trumpet blast is stock eschatological material, see the New Testament examples below.
Ex. 19:16 ἐγένετο δὲ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ τρίτῃ γενηθέντος πρὸς ὄρθρον καὶ ἐγίνοντο φωναὶ καὶ ἀστραπαὶ καὶ νεφέλη γνοφώδης ἐπ᾿ ὄρους Σινα, φωνὴ τῆς σάλπιγγος ἤχει μέγα· καὶ ἐπτοήθη πᾶς ὁ λαὸς ὁ ἐν τῇ παρεμβολῇ.
Ex. 19:16 On the morning of the third day there was thunder and lightning, as well as a thick cloud on the mountain, and a blast of a trumpet so loud that all the people who were in the camp trembled.
Ex. 19:19 ἐγίνοντο δὲ αἱ φωναὶ τῆς σάλπιγγος προβαίνουσαι ἰσχυρότεραι σφόδρα· Μωυσῆς ἐλάλει, ὁ δὲ θεὸς ἀπεκρίνατο αὐτῷ φωνῇ.
Ex. 19:19 As the blast of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses would speak and God would answer him in thunder.
Ex. 20:18 Καὶ πᾶς ὁ λαὸς ἑώρα τὴν φωνὴν καὶ τὰς λαμπάδας καὶ τὴν φωνὴν τῆς σάλπιγγος καὶ τὸ ὄρος τὸ καπνίζον· φοβηθέντες δὲ πᾶς ὁ λαὸς ἔστησαν μακρόθεν.
Ex. 20:18 When all the people witnessed the thunder and lightning, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking, they were afraid and trembled and stood at a distance,
Heb. 12:19 and the sound of a trumpet, and a voice whose words made the hearers beg that not another word be spoken to them.
Matt. 24:31 And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
1Cor. 15:52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.
1Th. 4:16 For the Lord himself, with a cry of command, with the archangel’s call and with the sound of God’s trumpet, will descend from heaven, and the dead in Christ will rise first.
In summary, this alternative claims that the language is compatible with the idea that there is a different voice in Rev 4:1 than in Rev 1:10. This isn’t going to win a big following. The evidence does appear to point in the other direction.