Regarding μισέω (miseó)
Luke 14:26 uses the term μισέω ("hate" in many, perhaps all, English translations) in a context that reasonably shows its usage to be something other than "an adversarial emotion we recognize as 'hate.'" That is, it is used in a relative sense there, where Christ is comparing the fact that one ought to "detest" father, mother, wife, child, brother, sister, and their own self if any of those get in the way of being his disciple (i.e. following Him). So no person, and no person's personal priorities, are to be placed above the priority of the Person of Christ and His priorities. Hence, it is used in a relative sense in this context.
This is further confirmed because other Scripture, including Christ's own statements, make it clear that one is not absolutely to have "an adversarial emotion" toward any of these people. Parents are to be honored (e.g. Mt 15:4), oneself is to be loved and one's love for others performed at a level equal to that (e.g. Mt 19:19).
However, just because it has a comparative usage in Luke 14:26 does not mean the term fails to hold the idea of "an adversarial emotion" in other contexts, and even by Jesus. Take Luke 21:16-17 (NASB) as an example:
16 But you will be betrayed even by parents and brothers
and relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death,
17 and you will be hated [a participle form of μισέω]
by all because of My name.
This context is clearly a use where Jesus does use the term with the idea of "an adversarial emotion" similar to what "we recognize as 'hate,'" as relatives are hating so much as to bring people to death.
So context determines the meaning (as with most word usages).
There is also καταφρονέω (kataphroneó)
This term is often translated "despise," which itself has synonymous meaning to "hate" in English. It can be found in Mt 6:24, 18:10; Luke 16:13; Rom 2:4; 1 Cor 11:22; 1 Tim 4:12, 6:2; 2 Pet 2:10; Heb 12:2.
Literally, the term is a compound of κατα (kata, in this context, "against") and φρονέω (phroneó, "to think"), so "to think against" someone. This certainly contains the idea of "an adversarial emotion we recognize as 'hate'" as well.
Do not make the mistake of thinking μισέω (even used by Jesus) cannot carry the same idea as the English "hate," but to answer directly the question, there is at least one other Greek term, καταφρονέω, that carries a similar idea.