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For example, in 1 Cor. 15:3, it is written,

For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; (King James Version, 1769)

παρέδωκα γὰρ ὑμῖν ἐν πρώτοις ὃ καὶ παρέλαβον ὅτι Χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν κατὰ τὰς γραφάς (Textus Receptus, 1550)

What exactly does the preposition "for" (or the Greek preposition ὑπὲρ) convey in that verse?

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Used with an object in the Genitive case (as here), it means "a marker indicating that an activity or event is in some entity’s interest, for, in behalf of, for the sake of someone/something" and "a marker of the moving cause or reason, because of, for the sake of, for" (BDAG lexicon).

So, for the sake of our sins and because of our sins.

It parallels the usage of ὑπὲρ in Hebrews 9:7 which talks about the high priest offering a sacrifice of blood "for(ὑπὲρ) the unintentional sins of the people". The effect of the death of Jesus therefore has the same effect (same preposition and prepositional object) as the sacrifice of blood of the high priest under the old covenant.

We also know from Ephesians 5:2 that Christ gave himself up as a sacrifice "for(ὑπὲρ) us", so it as true to say that his death was "for us" as "for our sins".

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  • Note that BDAG specifically mentions this usage as falling under the first definition you give (A1) rather than the second (A2). See A1b: w. gen. of thing, in which case it must be variously translated ὑπὲρ (τῶν) ἁμαρτιῶν in order to atone for (the) sins or to remove them 1 Cor 15:3... – Susan Apr 4 '15 at 10:28
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It refers to an act of Atonement which describes the setting “at one” of those who have been estranged and denotes the reconciliation of man to God. Sin is the cause of the estrangement, and therefore the purpose of atonement is to correct or overcome the consequences of sin. From the time of Adam to the death of Jesus Christ, true believers were instructed to offer animal sacrifices to the Lord. These sacrifices were symbolic of the forthcoming death of Jesus Christ and were done by faith in Him.

Jesus Christ, as the Only Begotten Son of God and the only sinless person to live on this earth, was the only one capable of making an atonement for mankind. By His selection and foreordination in the Grand Council before the world was formed, His divine Sonship, His sinless life, the shedding of His blood in the garden of Gethsemane, His death on the cross and subsequent bodily resurrection from the grave, He made a perfect atonement for all mankind. All are covered unconditionally as pertaining to the Fall of Adam. Hence, all shall rise from the dead with immortal bodies because of Jesus’ Atonement. “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (1 Cor. 15:22), and all little children are innocent at birth. The Atonement is conditional, however, so far as each person’s individual sins are concerned, and touches every one to the degree that he has faith in Jesus Christ, repents of his sins, and obeys the gospel. The services of the Day of Atonement foreshadowed the atoning work of Christ (Lev. 4; 23:26–32; Heb. 9). The scriptures point out that no law, ordinance, or sacrifice would be satisfactory if it were not for the Atonement of Jesus Christ (Heb. 10:1–9).

Sin is lawlessness (1 Jn. 3:4); it is a refusal on men’s part to submit to the law of God (Rom. 8:7). By transgression man loses control over his own will and becomes the slave of sin (Rom. 7:14) and so incurs the penalty of spiritual death, which is alienation from God (Rom. 6:23). The Atonement of Jesus Christ redeems all mankind from the Fall of Adam and causes all to be answerable for their own manner of life. This means of atonement is provided by the Father (John 3:16–17) and is offered in the life and person of His Son, Jesus Christ (2 Cor. 5:19).

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