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I was reading Daniel 8:15-27, where it says:

.... the ram you saw that had two horns represents the kingdoms of Media and Persia. The goat represents the kingdom of Greece, and the prominent horn between his eyes is the first king....
—Daniel 8:20-21 (GNT)

Can anybody explain what is meant by "kingdom of Greece"? Which countries/region/area does it point to now or back in the day?

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The original word here is closest to yawan, aka Javan son of Japheth—who is credited in the Bible with being the start of the tree of descendants that populated the Greek region. So the translation isn't unreasonable, but it may be talking more about the people rather than a traditional "kingdom".

For more information, see this page.

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    'Yavan' (יון or יוון) is still the name for Greece today in modern Hebrew.
    – Muke Tever
    May 11, 2012 at 15:40
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The reference to Greece is chronologically correct, as it follows the Persian Empire mentioned in verse 20. Verse 22 refers to the kingdom being broken and to four kingdoms that stood up for it.

21-22 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

The four Hellenic kingdoms that followed the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE were Egypt, Syria, Macedonia and Thrace. Clearly the "rough goat" refers to Alexander himself. The "first king" may have been Alexander's father, Philip.

Much of Greece became unified under Philip in 337 BCE.

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