In Psalm 8:3 we can read (NIV):

When I consider your heavens, the work of your fingers, the moon and the stars, which you have set in place,

What word "stars" (וְ֝כוֹכָבִ֗ים, wə·ḵō·w·ḵā·ḇîm) refer to?

Does it mean Yah·weh created the proper stars, or it could relate to Israel or some angelic hosts as in Daniel 8:10?

See: Does kôkābîm (כוֹכָבִים) in Book of Daniel refer to any bright objects in the sky?

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    The context in which the word וְכוֹכָבִים appears is a general description of creation, so I would opt to translate this with the plain meaning of stars in the sky. Do you know of an instance in Psalms where כּוֹכָב has an allusive meaning? Nov 2, 2014 at 9:32

1 Answer 1


It refers to the things that shine in the night sky that are not the "lesser light" (the moon). So, the Hebrew "stars" would also include the wandering stars that we refer to as planets, as well as the distant suns that we label as stars proper. To the Hebrew, they were all "stars".

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