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Psalm 68:4 expresses the name of God as Yah. This seems obvious related to the name of God as he expounded it to Moses in Exodus 3:14. We also see the two directly connected in passages such as Psalm 135:1:

Praise Yah!
Praise the name of YHWH!
Praise him, you servants of YHWH,

Brown-Driver-Briggs says Yah is a contracted form of YHWH bearing all the full meaning of YHWH, but it does not delineate how this process occurs. The same source indicates that this is a poetic form used in song. A glance at the references to the 48 passages in which it occurs affirms this.

When we say "don't" is a contraction of "do not", we know that the "o" of "not" is dropped. What is the grammatical/linguistic process of Hebrew contractions and how specifically does YHWH contract to Yah?

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  • 1
    See now also The name of God in ancient manuscripts for a follow-up question from OP.
    – Dɑvïd
    Dec 4 '14 at 15:00
  • You might be hung up on the word "contraction" as it is strictly used in some English grammars. "Truncation" might be a better description.
    – curiousdannii
    Nov 4 at 2:46
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Gesenius lexicon for Strong's 3050 has a slightly expanded explanation. There either יַהֲַוֹה or יַהְַוֶה is allowed to be an earlier pronounciation of YHWH, and the form Yah is explained by apocope to יָהוּ and then by omission of the unaccented וּ to the final יָהּ. As a further evidence, Gesenius points that "these forms are used promiscuously" (sic) at the end of proper names.

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  • 1
    Hello, and welcome to Biblical Hermeneutics! This is very interesting, thank you. I added a link to the lexicon - please feel free to correct if it isn't what you were citing. I hope you continue to contribute here!
    – Susan
    Aug 15 '14 at 20:55
  • Thanks for the link! It appears to be the exact same text I was using.
    – taneli
    Aug 15 '14 at 21:11
  • It actually mostly appears in Psalms (44 times---the other occurrences are Exodus 15:2, 17:16, Isaiah 12:2, 26:4 and 38:11), so maybe @james-shewey is correct about it being important to rhyme. As to the grammatical rules, I can only point you to further Gesenius, which only lists them, but not their origin or application with respect to revered names.
    – taneli
    Aug 16 '14 at 10:46
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It is possible that Yah is not formed by the first two letters of YHWH, but by the first and last.

Nehemia Gordon proposes this theory to account for Yah, while disagreeing with the scholarly consensus regarding the pronunciation Yahweh.

He states that in ancient Hebrew, contractions were commonly formed by taking the first and final letters. Unfortunately he does not provide any more examples.

In Reading and Writing in the Time of Jesus, Alan Millard states (p. 71):

... Contractions of proper names to their first and last letters do stand on Phoenecian and Palestinian coins of the Hellenistic period and in graffiti from the Punic towns of North Africa.

Contractions formed from the first and final letters is common in early Greek Christian manuscripts, for example:

ΙΣ for ΙΕΣΟΥΣ
ΧΣ for ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ
ΘΣ for ΘΕΟΣ

Accordingly, Millard suggests that Christian scribes might have borrowed this from "Semitic habit".

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Many theophoric names incorporate the theophoric element יָהּ, which is part of the Tetragrammaton.1 This theophoric element occurs alone approximately 49 times in 45 verses in the Old Testament.

For example, in Psa. 115:18, it is written,

Psa. 115:18

Because it occurs in isolation as יָהּ, pronounced /yah/, we know the partial pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton יהוה.

The following image shows four theophoric names, all composed of the theophoric element יָהּ either preceded or followed by the same verb חנן (“he is gracious”). Thus, all the names share the same meaning: “Yah is gracious.” The image demonstrates how the vowel pointing in the theophoric name יָהּ changes depending on its position in the word (relative to the verb).

Comparison of theophoric names with theophoric element in beginning and at end

Theophoric element occurs in the beginning of the theophoric name

The theophoric element sometimes occurs at the beginning of a name. For example, the name יְהוֹחָנָן (Yehochanan)2 begins with the syllables /ye-ho/ represented by the Hebrew יְהוֹ. A contracted variant also occurs as יוֹחָנָן (Yochanan),3 beginning with the syllable /yo/ represented by the Hebrew יוֹ.

Theophoric element occurs at the end of the theophoric name

Other times, the theophoric element occurs at the end of a name. For example, the name חֲנַנְיָהוּ (Chananyahu)4 ends with the syllables /ya-hu/ represented by the Hebrew יָּהוּ. It also occurs as חֲנַנְיָה (Chananyah),5 ending with the syllable /yah/ represented by the Hebrew יָּה.

While all these names are recognized as theophoric, the different sounds of the theophoric element in each (i.e., /yah/ v. /yeh/) cause confusion for some concerning the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton.

The Pronounciation “Jehovah” /dʒəˈhoʊvə/ or “Yehovah” /jəˈhoʊvə/

Concerning this pronunciation, Hans H. Spoer wrote,6

The pronunciation of the tetragrammaton as “Jehovah” is an absurdity. The earliest appearance of this transliteration we find in two passages of the “Pugio Fidei,” 1278, though it is not improbable that this is due to a later copyist. We know for certain, however, that this misnomer was brought into prominence by Petrus Galatinus, confessor of Leo X. The discontinuation of the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton by the Jews is doubtless due to a misinterpretation of Lev. 24:11, 16, in consequence of which the name was considered too sacred to be pronounced.

The pronunciation “Jehovah/Yehovah” was caused by the Masoretes inserting the vowel pointing for אֲדֹנָי (“Lord”) under the Tetragrammaton יהוה.

Marvin R. Wilson wrote,7

The name Jehovah is a hybrid proper name that combines the consonants of YHWH with the vowels of Adonai. The Masoretes, Jewish scholars from the early Middle Ages who established the basic text for the Hebrew Bible and standardized its pronunciation, inserted the vowels of Adonai into the Tetragrammaton. They did this to remind readers to avoid saying the sacred name Yahweh and to substitute instead the name Adonai. In the late Middle Ages, and especially at the time of the Reformation, a Christian misunderstanding of the (vocalized) Masoretic text resulted in the expression Jehovah finding its way into common Christian usage.

Tetragrammaton with אֲדֹנָי vowel pointing

This tradition of reciting אֲדֹנָי for יהוה predates the Masoretes by centuries. This explains why the Jewish scribes who produced the Septugaint wrote the word κύριος (equivalent to אֲדֹנָי) for occurrences of יהוה, rather than simply transliterating the Tetragrammaton into Greek.

The Pronunciation “Yahweh” /ˈjɑːˌweɪ/

Some contend that “Yahweh” /ˈjɑːˌweɪ/ cannot be the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton since the Tetragrammaton contains the Hebrew letter ו, which they suppose must be pronounced like the English letter “v”—as a voiced labio-dental fricative (IPA /v/). While the Hebrew letter ו is pronounced as a voiced labio-dental fricative in modern Hebrew, most linguistics agree that it was pronounced as a voiced labio-velar approximant (IPA /w/) in biblical Hebrew (like the Arabic و and Syriac ܘ).

HALOT states,8

HALOT, ו

For example, instead of a name such as דָּוִד (“David”) being pronounced /daˈvid/, it would have been pronounced /daːˈwiːð/. If we were to transliterate these into English, the former (modern Hebrew) would be “David,” while the latter (biblical Hebrew) would be “Dawid.” That being said, it is the accepted standard to transliterate the Hebrew letter ו into English by the letter “v” regardless of it being used in a biblical or modern Hebrew context. It is left up to the reader to pronounce it as /v/ or /w/ depending on the context.

Thus, “Yahweh” may also be written as “Yahveh” with the understanding that the letter “v” in the latter should be pronounced as /w/ rather than /v/ to reflect the biblical Hebrew pronunciation.

Propretonic reduction

To account for the change in pronunciation of the theophoric element from /yah(u)/ to /yeh(o)/ is the grammatical phenomenon known as “propretonic reduction,” or simply, vowel reduction.

Propretonic reduction causes the change from /yah/ to /yeh/ when the theophoric element is located at the beginning of the theophoric name since the tonic syllable shifts from the beginning to the end of the name.

Propretonic reduction

On the other hand, it does not cause the change from /yah/ to /yeh/ when the theophoric element is located at the end of the theophoric name since the theophoric element remains the tonic syllable.9

(more to come...)


References

Koehler, Ludwig; Baumgartner, Walter. A Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Trans. Richardson, M. E. J. Ed. Baumgartner, Walter; Stamm, Johann Jakob. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

Spoer, Hans H. The Origin and Interpretation of the Tetragrammaton. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1899.

The Jewish Encyclopedia. Ed. Singer, Isidore. Vol. 12. New York: Funk, 1907.

Wilson, Marvin R. Exploring Our Hebraic Heritage: A Christian Theology of Roots and Renewal. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2014.

Footnotes

1 The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 12, p. 120, “Tetragrammaton”
2 Ezra 10:6; often found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Jehohanan”
3 Neh. 12:23; often found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Johanan”
4 1 Kings 17:1; found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Hahaniah”
5 2 Kings 1:4; also found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Hananiah”
6 p. 27
7 p. 138
8 p. 257
9 The majority of Hebrew words are stressed on the final syllable, unlike English where many words are stressed on the initial syllable. For example, while English speakers pronounce the name דָּוִד as /daˈvid/—stressing the initial syllable, modern Hebrew speakers pronounce it as /davidˈ/—stressing the final syllable.

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Starting with יה/יהו (YeH/YeHu(o)):

Yehoshua, Yeshua, Yehuda, Yehudim, Yehoshaphat, Yehoaida, Yehoram, Yehu, Yehonadav, Yehoyakin

VS.

Ending with יה/יהו (YaH/YaHu):

YeshaYAHu (Isaiah), OvadYAHu (Obadiah), AdoniYAHu (Adoniah), YehizkiYAHu (Hezekiah), ZephaniYAHu (Zephaniah), ZechariYAHu (Zechariah), YoshiYAHu (Josiah) Even NetanYAHu. And HalleluYAH and so on.

I'm being quite conservative here with the amount of names I'm jotting down. I thought about 10 for each pronunciation would be more than what's needed to make the point.

Looking at the language patterns above, YaHWeH or YaHUaH don't really make as much sense as YeHoVaH. Is there solid evidence that YaHWeH can be proven as THE pronunciation of the Name?

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  • Welcome to Bible Hermeneutics SE and thank you for your contribution. When you get a chance, please take the tour to understand how the site works and how it is different than others.
    – agarza
    Nov 2 at 19:34
  • Hi Ben, welcome! What about the language patterns you listed leads you to Yehovah? Nov 2 at 23:16
  • Thanks for the welcome! So as you can see above, my conclusion came from the grammatical fact that Yud, Hey / יה and Yud, Hey, Vav / יהו are different in sound when placed in the beginning VS placed at the end of the word, as also outlined in the longer comment above. So, I don't know why would the pronunciation deviate so much into YaHWeH if there's no other instance in the Hebrew language to correlate with it. Nov 3 at 12:00
  • Solild evidence at this late date? It was a dead language and was resurrected. Observe יוי which is translated Jehovah in Joiada, Jehoiachin, Joiakim, and Joiarib, But is replaced by א in אדע 'I know', אכין 'I establish', אקים 'I raise up' , and אריב 'I contend'. The aleph is made from yod-vav-yod יוי. Because it is a silent letter, the yod-vav-yod are silent, but would sound like ee-oo-ee.
    – Bob Jones
    Nov 3 at 13:54
  • I think I'm with @BobJones on this one. Why should theophoric conventions and grammatical phenomena such as “propretonic reduction,” be given authority to change the pronunciation of the name of God? Nov 4 at 6:19
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The question forces an answer that יה must be a contraction יהוה. Perhaps it is not.

In forty eight times יה is used in scripture, It appears twice with יהוה as יה יהוה . Isa 12:2 and Isa 26:4. And it is translate LORD JEHOVAH.

In extra-biblical writings It is also used. If it was a 'nickname' for Jehovah, as is suggested by the contraction theory, what would motivate the author to write the equivalent of Bob Robert.

The usage of יה יהוה supports the ancient practice of Notarikon as defind in the Sefir Yetsirah. The Sephir Yetzirah is either an old book or an ancient book (debated) which is used as the core of Caballah, however, when read plainly, it is a phonetics book which describes the formation of letters from sounds and words from letters.

It assigns meaning to the letters and suggests that words are built by combining the meaning of the letters.

Air emanated from the spirit by which He formed and established twenty-two consonants, stamina. Three of them, however, are fundamental letters, or mothers, seven double and twelve simple consonants; hence the spirit is the first one.

For He indeed showed the mode of combination of the letters, each with each, Aleph with all, and all with Aleph. Thus in combining all together in pairs are produced these two hundred and thirty-one gates of knowledge. And from Nothingness did He make something, and all forms of speech and every created thing, and from the empty void He made the solid earth, and from the non-existent He brought forth Life.

The meanings it assigns to letters and the philosophy around the phonetics may or may not be valuable, but the old or ancient source on the formation of language is of great interest, as is the memory that the meaning of words are formed by combining the meaning of letters.

This property of Hebrew can be observed easily in the example of Adam אדם who came from the ground 'adamah' אדמה and was made of blood 'dam' דם and spirit 'ah' א.

Yah is more likely to be one of the legitimate names of God in it's own right. It expresses the idea of the ineffable creator ['Creator י not understood ה '], where Yahweh is both 'I AM' and 'The creator י of calamity הוה' . Also Yahweh can be formed as The ineffable God 'Yah יה of wo הו or י(הו)ה.

In Genesis 6:3 God tells Moses that he has not been known by the name Yahweh previously, though Abraham knew him by that name. This is not a contradiction. Abraham knew God as 'I AM'. God explained to Moses that, as he is about to wreak havoc on Egypt, he has not previously been known as the 'Creator י of calamity הוה.

Isa 45:7 I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil [calamity]: I the LORD do all these [things].

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