8

Psalm 68:4 expresses the name of God as Yah. This seems obvious related to the name of God as he expounded it to Moses in Exodus 3:14. We also see the two directly connected in passages such as Psalm 135:1:

Praise Yah!
Praise the name of YHWH!
Praise him, you servants of YHWH,

Brown-Driver-Briggs says Yah is a contracted form of YHWH bearing all the full meaning of YHWH, but it does not delineate how this process occurs. The same source indicates that this is a poetic form used in song. A glance at the references to the 48 passages in which it occurs affirms this.

When we say "don't" is a contraction of "do not", we know that the "o" of "not" is dropped. What is the grammatical/linguistic process of Hebrew contractions and how specifically does YHWH contract to Yah?

4

Gesenius lexicon for Strong's 3050 has a slightly expanded explanation. There either יַהֲַוֹה or יַהְַוֶה is allowed to be an earlier pronounciation of YHWH, and the form Yah is explained by apocope to יָהוּ and then by omission of the unaccented וּ to the final יָהּ. As a further evidence, Gesenius points that "these forms are used promiscuously" (sic) at the end of proper names.

  • 1
    Hello, and welcome to Biblical Hermeneutics! This is very interesting, thank you. I added a link to the lexicon - please feel free to correct if it isn't what you were citing. I hope you continue to contribute here! – Susan Aug 15 '14 at 20:55
  • Thanks for the link! It appears to be the exact same text I was using. – taneli Aug 15 '14 at 21:11
  • It actually mostly appears in Psalms (44 times---the other occurrences are Exodus 15:2, 17:16, Isaiah 12:2, 26:4 and 38:11), so maybe @james-shewey is correct about it being important to rhyme. As to the grammatical rules, I can only point you to further Gesenius, which only lists them, but not their origin or application with respect to revered names. – taneli Aug 16 '14 at 10:46
4

It is possible that Yah is not formed by the first two letters of YHWH, but by the first and last.

Nehemia Gordon proposes this theory to account for Yah, while disagreeing with the scholarly consensus regarding the pronunciation Yahweh.

He states that in ancient Hebrew, contractions were commonly formed by taking the first and final letters. Unfortunately he does not provide any more examples.

In Reading and Writing in the Time of Jesus, Alan Millard states (p. 71):

... Contractions of proper names to their first and last letters do stand on Phoenecian and Palestinian coins of the Hellenistic period and in graffiti from the Punic towns of North Africa.

Contractions formed from the first and final letters is common in early Greek Christian manuscripts, for example:

ΙΣ for ΙΕΣΟΥΣ
ΧΣ for ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ
ΘΣ for ΘΕΟΣ

Accordingly, Millard suggests that Christian scribes might have borrowed this from "Semitic habit".

2

Many theophoric names incorporate the theophoric element יָהּ, which is part of the Tetragrammaton.1 This theophoric element occurs alone approximately 49 times in 45 verses in the Old Testament.

For example, in Psa. 115:18, it is written,

Psa. 115:18

Because it occurs in isolation as יָהּ, pronounced /yah/, we know the partial pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton יהוה.

The following image shows four theophoric names, all composed of the theophoric element יָהּ either preceded or followed by the same verb חנן (“he is gracious”). Thus, all the names share the same meaning: “Yah is gracious.” The image demonstrates how the vowel pointing in the theophoric name יָהּ changes depending on its position in the word (relative to the verb).

Comparison of theophoric names with theophoric element in beginning and at end

Theophoric element occurs in the beginning of the theophoric name

The theophoric element sometimes occurs at the beginning of a name. For example, the name יְהוֹחָנָן (Yehochanan)2 begins with the syllables /ye-ho/ represented by the Hebrew יְהוֹ. A contracted variant also occurs as יוֹחָנָן (Yochanan),3 beginning with the syllable /yo/ represented by the Hebrew יוֹ.

Theophoric element occurs at the end of the theophoric name

Other times, the theophoric element occurs at the end of a name. For example, the name חֲנַנְיָהוּ (Chananyahu)4 ends with the syllables /ya-hu/ represented by the Hebrew יָּהוּ. It also occurs as חֲנַנְיָה (Chananyah),5 ending with the syllable /yah/ represented by the Hebrew יָּה.

While all these names are recognized as theophoric, the different sounds of the theophoric element in each (i.e., /yah/ v. /yeh/) cause confusion for some concerning the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton.

The Pronounciation “Jehovah” /dʒəˈhoʊvə/ or “Yehovah” /jəˈhoʊvə/

Concerning this pronunciation, Hans H. Spoer wrote,6

The pronunciation of the tetragrammaton as “Jehovah” is an absurdity. The earliest appearance of this transliteration we find in two passages of the “Pugio Fidei,” 1278, though it is not improbable that this is due to a later copyist. We know for certain, however, that this misnomer was brought into prominence by Petrus Galatinus, confessor of Leo X. The discontinuation of the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton by the Jews is doubtless due to a misinterpretation of Lev. 24:11, 16, in consequence of which the name was considered too sacred to be pronounced.

The pronunciation “Jehovah/Yehovah” was caused by the Masoretes inserting the vowel pointing for אֲדֹנָי (“Lord”) under the Tetragrammaton יהוה.

Marvin R. Wilson wrote,7

The name Jehovah is a hybrid proper name that combines the consonants of YHWH with the vowels of Adonai. The Masoretes, Jewish scholars from the early Middle Ages who established the basic text for the Hebrew Bible and standardized its pronunciation, inserted the vowels of Adonai into the Tetragrammaton. They did this to remind readers to avoid saying the sacred name Yahweh and to substitute instead the name Adonai. In the late Middle Ages, and especially at the time of the Reformation, a Christian misunderstanding of the (vocalized) Masoretic text resulted in the expression Jehovah finding its way into common Christian usage.

Tetragrammaton with אֲדֹנָי vowel pointing

This tradition of reciting אֲדֹנָי for יהוה predates the Masoretes by centuries. This explains why the Jewish scribes who produced the Septugaint wrote the word κύριος (equivalent to אֲדֹנָי) for occurrences of יהוה, rather than simply transliterating the Tetragrammaton into Greek.

The Pronunciation “Yahweh” /ˈjɑːˌweɪ/

Some contend that “Yahweh” /ˈjɑːˌweɪ/ cannot be the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton since the Tetragrammaton contains the Hebrew letter ו, which they suppose must be pronounced like the English letter “v”—as a voiced labio-dental fricative (IPA /v/). While the Hebrew letter ו is pronounced as a voiced labio-dental fricative in modern Hebrew, most linguistics agree that it was pronounced as a voiced labio-velar approximant (IPA /w/) in biblical Hebrew (like the Arabic و and Syriac ܘ).

HALOT states,8

HALOT, ו

For example, instead of a name such as דָּוִד (“David”) being pronounced /daˈvid/, it would have been pronounced /daːˈwiːð/. If we were to transliterate these into English, the former (modern Hebrew) would be “David,” while the latter (biblical Hebrew) would be “Dawid.” That being said, it is the accepted standard to transliterate the Hebrew letter ו into English by the letter “v” regardless of it being used in a biblical or modern Hebrew context. It is left up to the reader to pronounce it as /v/ or /w/ depending on the context.

Thus, “Yahweh” may also be written as “Yahveh” with the understanding that the letter “v” in the latter should be pronounced as /w/ rather than /v/ to reflect the biblical Hebrew pronunciation.

Propretonic reduction

To account for the change in pronunciation of the theophoric element from /yah(u)/ to /yeh(o)/ is the grammatical phenomenon known as “propretonic reduction,” or simply, vowel reduction.

Propretonic reduction causes the change from /yah/ to /yeh/ when the theophoric element is located at the beginning of the theophoric name since the tonic syllable shifts from the beginning to the end of the name.

Propretonic reduction

On the other hand, it does not cause the change from /yah/ to /yeh/ when the theophoric element is located at the end of the theophoric name since the theophoric element remains the tonic syllable.9

(more to come...)


References

Koehler, Ludwig; Baumgartner, Walter. A Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Trans. Richardson, M. E. J. Ed. Baumgartner, Walter; Stamm, Johann Jakob. Leiden: Brill, 2002.

Spoer, Hans H. The Origin and Interpretation of the Tetragrammaton. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1899.

The Jewish Encyclopedia. Ed. Singer, Isidore. Vol. 12. New York: Funk, 1907.

Wilson, Marvin R. Exploring Our Hebraic Heritage: A Christian Theology of Roots and Renewal. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2014.

Footnotes

1 The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 12, p. 120, “Tetragrammaton”
2 Ezra 10:6; often found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Jehohanan”
3 Neh. 12:23; often found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Johanan”
4 1 Kings 17:1; found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Hahaniah”
5 2 Kings 1:4; also found transliterated in English versions of the Bible as “Hananiah”
6 p. 27
7 p. 138
8 p. 257
9 The majority of Hebrew words are stressed on the final syllable, unlike English where many words are stressed on the initial syllable. For example, while English speakers pronounce the name דָּוִד as /daˈvid/—stressing the initial syllable, modern Hebrew speakers pronounce it as /davidˈ/—stressing the final syllable.

-2

Quite simply, because ‘YHWH’ (Yahweh) is incorrect. ‘YHVH’ (Ye-Ho-Vah/Je-Ho-Vah) is the correct form of God's name. So the name ‘Yah/Jah’ really is a contraction of ‘Yehovah/Jehovah,’ dropping all but the first and last two letters.

In English it is pronounced ‘Je-ho-vah,’ while in Hebrew it is pronounced ‘Ye-ho-vah’ (just as ‘Joseph’ is pronounced “Joe-seph” in English, it is pronounced “Yo-seph” in Hebrew).

This is why there are so many Biblical names that begin with “Jeho-” or end with “-ah.”

Just as ‘Jonathan’ is a contracted form of ‘Jehonathan,’ ‘Joseph’ (“Jehovah has added”) is a contracted form of ‘Jehoseph’ which is only used once in Psalm 81:5. Other contracted forms of “Jeho-” are:

Names that have the ‘-ah’ ending:

John Wesley Etheridge, in the introduction to Volume 2 of his English translation of The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan ben Uzziel on the Pentateuch, discusses the Divine Name starting on page 7:

II. Jehovah, יהוה. In this holy and awful Name, as the revealed appellation of the Self-Existing, All-Sufficient, and Unchangeable Being, we possess the germ and principle of all true theology. The Hebrew divines call it, by emphasis, Ha Shem, THE NAME; with the reverential epithets of Shema Rabba, “the Great Name;” Shem shel arba othioth, “the Name of Four Letters;” (the Greek Tetragramma;) Shem ha-etsem, “the very Name;” Shem hammeyochad, “the one, singular, or peculiar Name;” and Shem hammephorash, “the Name of Manifestation,” as making the Divine Nature known; (from pharash, “to explain;”) or, in the meaning which that verb bears in Aramaic of being separate or distinguished,—“the Name which is especially sacred.”

The reverence and godly fear with which this Divine title is regarded, have among the Jews for two thousand years made it a name for the thought, rather than the tongue; and the silence of so many ages, in the disuse of it as a vocable, has been followed by the absolute loss of its true pronunciation. The averseness to the use of the Name by the voice was at an early period strengthened by the view taken of the third commandment, as not only forbidding perjury and blasphemy, but also the light and indiscriminating pronunciation of the Holy Name in common conversation; and by conclusions from the case in Levit. xxiv. 11-16, where the sin of the man was thought to have consisted not only in his blaspheming the Name, but in pronouncing it. See the Targums on the place. The influence of this feeling showed itself in the habit of refraining from the common use of the Name, except in worship, and in pious salutations; (Berakoth, iii. 5;) and then of restricting the utterance of it to the lips of the priest in the public services of religion. Thus, in pronouncing the trinal blessing, (Num. vi.,) the priest “might make utterance of the Name according to its writing.” (Shem hammephorash ki-kethabo.—Talmud, Sotah, vii. 6; Tamid, vii. 2.) When the high priest pronounced it in the service of the day of Atonement, the people fell prostrate on the ground. (Mishna, Yoma, vi. 2.) So that hitherto the use of it was not absolutely forbidden, but the abuse only. But the exaggeration of the sentiment led at last to the final cessation of the use itself. After the time of the high priest Shemeon Hazaddik, it ceased to be spoken. It was heard in the temple for the last time from his mouth. Henceforward whoever should attempt to pronounce it was to have no part in the world to come. (Sanhedrin, x. 1.) The consequence has been an utter oblivion of the orthoëpy of the Name, not only in its oral sound, but in its grammatical vocalization; a defect which has caused not a little embarrassment as to the precise composition and import of the appellation. The four antique consonants remain, like an immutable symbol of the Divine Being; but the manner in which they are vocalized, from the peculiar nature of the Hebrew language, will greatly modify the signification. And perhaps no name has been subjected to so many experiments for some past time as the sacred one before us, for which the following modes of the expression have been severally contended for:—YeHeVeH, YeHVeH, YaHVeH, YaHaVaH, YaHaVeH, YeHoVaH. After these we cease to wonder at the diversities in the Greek and other ethnic forms of the name; as Αια, Ιαω, Ιαβε, Ιευω, Διος, Jovis, and Jova.

But amid all these variations as to the mode in which it should be syllabled, the real meaning of the name is not seriously obscured. The basis of it stands sure, in the Hebrew verb hayah, “to be;” a verb of which there are two forms, hayah and havah, the latter being the more ancient. It is that which appears in the name Jehovah; a circumstance which should be taken into account in examining one of the questions of the day on the antiquity of the name.

Now, of the preterite hayah or havah, “He was,” the third person future, masculine, is Yihyeh, or Yihveh, “He will be;” a form of the verb which certainly gives that of the title YHVH. In this point of view, as predicating futurity of existence, it is held to express, in the third person, “He will be;” that which the Almighty affirmed of Himself (Exod. iii. 14) in the first person, Ehyeh, “I will be.” But the futurity of existence here proclaimed is not that of one who is only to be hereafter; it is the permanent existence of a Being who now Is, and who ever has Been. For the form Yihveh is held to be equivalent with Ye-havah, the prefix of the future combined with the preterite root, to indicate the permanence of One who has ever existed. He who Was and Is, is He who Will Be. The punctuation of the Name as Yehovah is an attempt to express the fulness of this truth, in aduniting [Etheridge appears to have created his own word here by combining ‘adding’ and ‘uniting’ into “aduniting”] the three elements of the verb “to Be.” Thus Yehe, “He will be;” Hoveh, “He is;” Havah, “He was.” So in the Apocalypse the Deity is named as ὁ ἦν, καὶ ὁ ὢν, καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος, (Rev. iv. 8,) “He who was, and who is, and who is to come,” or “to be, still;” in Hebrew, Hu haveh, hu hoveh, vehu yehveh. Hence the name Yehovah has always been considered as the peculiar and incommunicable title of the Being who is self-existent, all-sufficient, and unchangeable. In the Tetragramma there is a concentration of all the Divine attributes; for He who is the self-existent must be self-sufficient, and therefore infinitely blessed, benevolent, and just; omniscient, because spiritual in His nature, and everywhere present, as existing absolutely; boundless in power as in presence; immutable, inhabiting eternity.

The Masorites punctuated the name Jehovah with the vowels of אֲדֹנָי Adonai; thus, יְהוָֹה [Ye-ho-vah]. But when the two titles, Jehovah and Adonai, occur in the Bible in apposition, the former is pointed with the vowels of אֱלֹהִים [Elohiym], as in Hab. iii. 19: וֱהוִֹה אֲדֹנָי [Yehovih Adonai].

I'm breaking into this quotation to point out that even when different vowels are substituted as in the above example, it's almost the same: Ye-ho-vee instead of Ye-ho-vaa. However, the substitution of the vowels of אֱלֹהִים when “Jehovah and Adonai occur in apposition” is not always the case, as can be seen with this very rare “Adonai Yehovah” in Ezekiel 28:22 in the Aleppo codex:

(The cholam, or dot, above the Adonai has faded with time, but you can still see the remains of it.) Aleppo_Ezekiel_28_22
-Initial credit goes to Nehemia Gordon for this (though I find myself disagreeing with probably about half of everything he says).

Etheridge concludes the section with:

The authors of the Septuagint Version, under the influence of the Palestinian feeling with regard to the Holy Name, do not give it a literal expression, but render it by ὁ Κύριος, “the Lord;” and Yehovah Elohim by Κύριος ὁ Θεός [“the Lord God”]. The old Syriac Version for Yehovah employs the title Morio, “the Lord.” The Syrians considered this name with its four letters M.R.I.A. to correspond with the Hebrew Tetragram, יהוה ; and the letters themselves as the initials of words symbolical of the Divine Nature; the first, m, standing for morutho, “dominion;” the second, r, for rabbutho, “majesty,” or “greatness;” the third and fourth, i, a, for aithutho, “essential being.” Morio, “The Lord,” is distinguished from the common form of Mar, “a lord,” and is never used but as an appellation of the Deity. In the Chaldee Targums Yehovah is always expressed by Yeya.

-The Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan ben Uzziel on the Pentateuch; with fragments of the Jerusalem Targum: from the Chaldee. Volume 2. Translated by John Wesley Etheridge. London, 1865.

John Parkhurst, in entry 3 under הוה on page 111 in his Hebrew lexicon, says:

III. As a noun יהוה JEHOVAH, the peculiar and incommunicable name of the Divine Essence (see Isa. xlii. 8. Hos. xii. 4, 5.) subsisting in a plurality, i. e. a Trinity of Persons. See Deut. vi. 4. xxviii. 58, and compare under אלהים. If the initial י in יהוה, as in some proper names יצחק Isaac, יעקב Jacob, [etc.] be only formative, the word will denote he who is or SUBSISTS, i. e. eminently and in a manner superior to all other beings; [...] That this divine name יהוה was known to the heathen, there can be no doubt. Diodorus Siculus, lib. i. speaking of those who attributed the framing of their laws to the gods, says, “Παρα τοις Ιουδαιοις Μωσην ιστορουσι τον ΙΑΩ επικαλουμενον Θεον—Among the Jews they report that Moses did this to the God called Iao.” Varro, cited by St Austin, says, Deum Judæorum esse Jovem, that Jove was the God of the Jews; and from יהוה the Etruscans seem plainly to have had their Juve or Jove, and the Romans their Jovis or Jovis Pater, i. e. Father Jove, afterwards corrupted into Jupiter. [...] I add that from this same divine name the Greeks had their exclamation of grief Ιου, as Ιου, Ιου δυστηνε, and the Romans theirs of triumph, Io, Io, Triumphe! both of which were originally addresses to Jehovah.

-A Hebrew and English Lexicon Without Points. John Parkhurst. London, 1829.

Though Gesenius summarizes several of the various views of the pronunciation of the name and never holds Jehovah as “the correct way to say it,” he does make a brief statement on page 337 of his lexicon about the possibility of the pronunciation of יהוה being Jehovah when he says:

...those who consider that יְהוָֹה {Jehovah / Yehovah} was the actual pronunciation...are not altogether without ground on which to defend their opinion. In this way can the abbreviated syllables יְהוֹ {Jeho / Yeho} and יוֹ {Jo / Yo}, with which many proper names begin, be more satisfactorily explained.

To this the translator, Samuel Prideaux Tregelles, agrees as he inserts his own note in brackets [ ] immediately following the above statement saying:

[This last argument goes a long way to prove the vowels יְהוָֹה {Jehovah / Yehovah} to be the true ones.]

-Gesenius's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon of the Old Testament. Translated by Samuel Prideaux Tregelles. New York, 1893.

Finally, the ‘V’ (ו - vav) really is a ‘v’ and not a ‘w’. The Greek alphabet descends from the Hebrew / Phoenician, with the ancient Greek digamma Ϝ corresponding directly with the Hebrew Vav:

Digamma

Though the proponents of the W sound will argue otherwise, evidence for the pronunciation of the digamma points more to the sound of the English V:

In addition to the smooth and aspirated breathings, the ancient [Greek] language had another, which remained longest among the Æolians. This is most commonly called, from the appearance of the character Ϝ, used to denote it, Digamma, that is a double Γ [Gamma]. It was a true consonant, and appears to have had the force of f or v. [...] The whole doctrine, however, of the Digamma, for want of literary monuments remaining from the period when it was most in use, is exceedingly obscure.

-Greek Grammar For The Use Of Schools (Second Edition). Philip Buttman. Translated by Edward Everett. Boston, 1826. Page 340.


The sound of f or v was also expressed by a letter resembling a double gamma, (Ϝ,) hence called Digamma.

-An Introduction to the Greek Language. Asahel C. Kendrick. Utica: New York, 1841. Page 10.

The sounds that the letters F and V make are extremely close to each other. Say the following syllables and notice how your lips and mouth assume almost the same positions for each:

  • fa, va
  • fe, ve
  • fi, vi
  • fo, vo
  • fu, vu

Additional supporters of a V sound for the digamma, including Philip Buttman's son, Alexander, who revised and enlarged his father's work:

Note 3. Along with these two breathings the earliest language had still another aspirate, which was longest retained by the Æolians. This is commonly called Digamma, from its shape Ϝ, i. e. a double Γ; [...] It was strictly a real consonant with the sound of v....

-Greek Grammar For The Use of High Schools And Universities. Philip Buttman. Revised by Alexander Buttman. Translated by Edward Robinson. New York, 1872. Page 11.


The letter Ϝ, called Digamma, and pronounced like the English v, fell out of use in early times.

-Initia Græca.—Part I. A First Greek Course. Sir William Smith. London, 1906. Page 2.

(Note that there are many who think the Ϝ digamma had a W sound, and that the ו Vav was also sounded like W, but I cannot agree with them as they are not able to explain certain things, such as the interchange of V and B shown below.)

The Hebrew words גַּו gav and גַּב gab (transliterated as “gab” but pronounced ‘gav’) are both used to mean “back” in several places:

1 Kings 14:9 (KJV)
but hast done evil above all that were before thee: for thou hast gone and made thee other gods, and molten images, to provoke me to anger, and hast cast me behind thy back:

וַתָּרַע לַעֲשֹׂות מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתַּעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וּמַסֵּכֹות לְהַכְעִיסֵנִי וְאֹתִי הִשְׁלַכְתָּ אַחֲרֵי גַוֶּֽךָ


Nehemiah 9:26 (KJV)
Nevertheless they were disobedient, and rebelled against thee, and cast thy law behind their backs, and slew thy prophets which testified against them to turn them to thee, and they wrought great provocations.

וַיַּמְרוּ וַֽיִּמְרְדוּ בָּךְ וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶת־תֹּורָֽתְךָ אַחֲרֵי גַוָּם וְאֶת־נְבִיאֶיךָ הָרָגוּ אֲשֶׁר־הֵעִידוּ בָם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֵלֶיךָ וַֽיַּעֲשׂוּ נֶאָצֹות גְּדֹולֹֽת


Ezekiel 23:35 (KJV)
Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Because thou hast forgotten me, and cast me behind thy back, therefore bear thou also thy lewdness and thy whoredoms.

לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן שָׁכַחַתְּ אֹותִי וַתַּשְׁלִיכִי אֹותִי אַחֲרֵי גַוֵּךְ וְגַם־אַתְּ שְׂאִי זִמָּתֵךְ וְאֶת־תַּזְנוּתָֽיִךְ


Psalm 129:3 (KJV)
The plowers plowed upon my back: they made long their furrows.

עַל־גַּבִּי חָרְשׁוּ חֹרְשִׁים הֶאֱרִיכוּ למענותם


Ezekiel 10:12 (KJV)
And their whole body, and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels, were full of eyes round about, even the wheels that they four had.

וְכָל־בְּשָׂרָם וְגַבֵּהֶם וִֽידֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם וְהָאֹֽופַנִּים מְלֵאִים עֵינַיִם סָבִיב לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם אֹופַנֵּיהֶֽם

And as Gesenius shows, they are “of the same sense” as each other:

Gesenius_gav_gab -While the picture is my own, initial credit goes to Nehemia Gordon for pointing this out.

This is very strong evidence for the ו Vav having a V sound, since the words גַּו gav and גַּב gab are sounded the same, with Ezekiel using them both to mean back.

  • 4
    Care to actually prove why Yahweh/Yahveh is incorrect? – user862 Jan 22 '16 at 9:09

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