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KJV Mat 23:37  O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!  Mat 23:38  Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.  Mat 23:39  For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.  Mat 23:39  For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

KJV Rev 19:7  Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.  Rev 19:8  And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.  Rev 19:9  And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb.Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.

KJV Joh 3:27  John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.  Joh 3:28  Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.  Joh 3:29  He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.  Joh 3:30  He must increase, but I must decrease.

Jesus called John a "burning light":

KJV Joh 5:35  He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light.

Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;  Luk 12:36  And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately.  Luk 12:37  Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them.  Luk 12:38  And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.  Luk 12:39  And this know, that if the goodman of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through.  Luk 12:40  Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.

KJV Luk 12:41  Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?  Luk 12:42  And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?  Luk 12:43  Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.  Luk 12:44  Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath.  Luk 12:45  But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the menservants and maidens, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken;  Luk 12:46  The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.  Luk 12:47  And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himselfand prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.  Luk 12:48  But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.

So the spare oil is "preparation for delay".

KJV Mat 23:37  O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!  Mat 23:38  Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.  Mat 23:39  For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

KJV Rev 19:7  Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.  Rev 19:8  And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.  Rev 19:9  And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.

KJV Joh 3:27  John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.  Joh 3:28  Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.  Joh 3:29  He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.  Joh 3:30  He must increase, but I must decrease.

Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;  Luk 12:36  And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately.  Luk 12:37  Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them.  Luk 12:38  And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.  Luk 12:39  And this know, that if the goodman of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through.  Luk 12:40  Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.

KJV Luk 12:41  Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?  Luk 12:42  And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?  Luk 12:43  Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.  Luk 12:44  Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath.  Luk 12:45  But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the menservants and maidens, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken;  Luk 12:46  The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.  Luk 12:47  And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.  Luk 12:48  But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.

KJV Mat 23:37  O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!  Mat 23:38  Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.  Mat 23:39  For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

KJV Rev 19:7  Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.  Rev 19:8  And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.  Rev 19:9  And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.

KJV Joh 3:27  John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.  Joh 3:28  Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.  Joh 3:29  He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.  Joh 3:30  He must increase, but I must decrease.

Jesus called John a "burning light":

KJV Joh 5:35  He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light.

Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;  Luk 12:36  And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately.  Luk 12:37  Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them.  Luk 12:38  And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.  Luk 12:39  And this know, that if the goodman of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through.  Luk 12:40  Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.

KJV Luk 12:41  Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?  Luk 12:42  And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?  Luk 12:43  Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.  Luk 12:44  Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath.  Luk 12:45  But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the menservants and maidens, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken;  Luk 12:46  The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.  Luk 12:47  And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.  Luk 12:48  But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.

So the spare oil is "preparation for delay".

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The assumption in many of these answers is that this is a warning for the modern "Church" but Matthew's concern is the imminent return of Christ to set establish the earthly kingdom of God (glorified Israel), destroy the nations (IE: Rome) and reign forever from Zion. Instead, because Israel's leaders did not repent and acknowledge Christ, instead he smote the land with utter destruction in 70 AD:

KJV Malachi 4: Mal 4:4  Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.  Mal 4:5  Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD:  Mal 4:6  And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.

John had repeatedly warned that judgment had arrived:

Mat_3:10  And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.

This is why Jesus begins the parable with "Then":

Mat 25:1  Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom.

The virgins (better translated "girlfriends" IMHO) are not the bride of the Messiah but rather her friends whose responsibility it was to hold torches to illuminate the way for the bride to safely reach the groom's house.

Paul claims he played that role:

2Co 11:2  For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ. 

2Co 11:2  ζηλω γαρ υμας θεου ζηλω ηρμοσαμην γαρ υμας ενι ανδρι παρθενον αγνην παραστησαι τω χριστω

From Albert Barnes:

For I have espoused you ... - The word used here (ἁρμόζω harmozō) means properly “to adapt, to fit, to join together.” Hence, “to join in wedlock, to marry.” Here it means to marry to another; and the idea is, that Paul had been the agent employed in forming a connection, similar to the marriage connection. between them and the Saviour. The allusion here is not certain. It may refer to the custom which prevailed when friends made and procured the marriage for the bridegroom; or it may refer to some custom like that which prevailed among the Lacedemonians where persons were employed to form the lives and manners of virgins and prepare them for the duties of the married life. The sense is clear. Paul claims that it was by his instrumentality that they had been united to the Redeemer. Under him they had been brought into a relation to the Saviour similar to that sustained by the bride to her husband; and he felt all the interest in them which naturally grew out of that fact and from a desire to present them blameless to the pure Redeemer. The relation of the Church to Christ is often represented by marriage; see Eph_5:23-33; Rev_19:7; Rev_21:9.

To one husband - To the Redeemer.

That I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ - The allusion here, according to Doddridge, is, to the custom among the Greeks “of having an officer whose business it was to educate and form young women, especially those of rank and figure, designed for marriage, and then to present them to those who were to be their husbands, and if this officer through negligence permitted them to be corrupted between the espousals and the consummation of the marriage, great blame would fall upon him.” Such a responsibility Paul felt. So anxious was he for the entire purity of that church which was to constitute “the bride, the Lamb’s wife;” so anxious that all who were connected with that church should be presented pure in heaven... Barnes' Notes

So the virgins/girlfriends in the parable are the apostles who are charged with leading and accompanying the bride to the bridegroom. He is warning them to be prepared for delay:

Mat 24:42  Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come.  Mat 24:43  But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up.  Mat 24:44  Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.  Mat 24:45  Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season?  Mat 24:46  Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.  Mat 24:47  Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods.  Mat 24:48  But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming;  Mat 24:49  And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;  Mat 24:50  The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of,  Mat 24:51  And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

So this is a stern warning to the apostles to be vigilant because they have been tasked to minister to his bride and they must not be negligent. In particular they must be prepared to be faithful even if he delays. This is because in fact Jesus knew that his coming could not occur on schedule and would be deferred:

KJV Mat 23:37  O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!  Mat 23:38  Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.  Mat 23:39  For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

While the warning was initially specifically for the twelve it has application now for all charged with preparing, leading and accompanying the bride of Christ (faithful Israel) to Christ.

KJV Rev 19:7  Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.  Rev 19:8  And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.  Rev 19:9  And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.

KJV Joh 3:27  John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.  Joh 3:28  Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.  Joh 3:29  He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.  Joh 3:30  He must increase, but I must decrease.

Luke's account makes the charge to keep the lamps ever burning more explicit:

KJV Luk 12:35 

Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;  Luk 12:36  And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately.  Luk 12:37  Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them.  Luk 12:38  And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.  Luk 12:39  And this know, that if the goodman of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through.  Luk 12:40  Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.

Luke also brings out that the application of the parable is not only to the 12 but to all so charged:

KJV Luk 12:41  Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?  Luk 12:42  And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?  Luk 12:43  Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.  Luk 12:44  Of a truth I say unto you, that he will make him ruler over all that he hath.  Luk 12:45  But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the menservants and maidens, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken;  Luk 12:46  The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.  Luk 12:47  And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.  Luk 12:48  But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required: and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.