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24

The Hebrew word was used for winged creatures that weren't insects. Applying 'modern science' to an ancient culture's classifications of the world is anachronistic. The Tyndale Bible Dictionary reads: Modern scientists classify organisms on the basis of internal and external structure, but the biblical writers generally classified organisms according to ...


12

In modern Hebrew, עטלף, the word to which I believe you are referring, indeed means bat. But Targum Yonason (I know the Hebrew, I am referring to the source material at the moment) translates that word as טרפידא in Aramaic, which, based on the roots, (to capture prey by chasing it down and ripping it apart) leans more towards a sort of owl or other bird of ...


9

Depending on its context, אֶרֶץ can be translated as ground, earth, land, piece of ground, territory, country, region, earth, or underworld.1 It's a very common word. This is not to say it can be translated as any of these in any context, the context (esp. specific phrases in which it's used) guides how it should be understood. Below is a visual ...


8

Short Answer: "Generally it is the only translation" (but it is complicated) First, there are two (three?) different words in the references you give. The Nephilim (נְפִילִים; a word only ever found in plural form in OT) only appears three times in Gen 6:4 and Num 13:33 (twice). The word in 1 Ch 20:8 (also 1 Ch 20:6 and 1 Ch 8:2; cf. also 1 Ch 4:12) is ...


7

The key clause in Genesis 2:18 is אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ ʾeʿĕśeh-lô ʿēzer kᵉnegdô I will make for him a helper fit for him This noun (עֵזֶר, ʿēzer, the same root that the name "Ezra" comes from) appears 21× in the Hebrew Bible.1 It is indeed used for Israel's help from the LORD, unambiguously, e.g., in Ps 33:20[esv] Our soul waits for ...


7

This may be related to another question about the parable that is the context for this question on Matthew 18:34 in particular. OP: What is the original word used in our oldest manuscripts and how has that word been traditionally used? The word used here for "torturers" is τοῖς βασανισταῖς or, in its lexical form, βασανιστής (basanistēs). There are no ...


7

The semantic range of אֶרֶצ ('eretz') revolves around the idea of "land" (cf. BDB). It can mean "land" vs. sea & air, "country", or "ground". The semantic range of אֲדָמָה ('adamah') revolves around the idea of "soil" (cf. BDB). It can mean the soil that you till, a piece of [tillable] property, earth as material substance, the visible surface of the ...


6

There were two main qualifications, one is primarily cultural, and one is really universal. A host family (or person) would need to be hospitable. Abraham, Lot, and others throughout the Old Testament were "lovers of strangers" (to use an anachronistic expression derived from the Greek word for hospitality). In the ANE, hospitality and being a good ...


5

Answer: Although both Faith and Hope are functions of the "Psyche," Hope carries with it an emotional sense of "Joyful Expectation;" whereas Faith carries with it a rational sense of Certain Expectation. Luke 23:8, NASB - Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad; for he had desired for a long time to see Him, because he had heard many ...


5

The textual variants are ἰδὼν and εἰδώς. According to Tischendorf, ἰδών is the well attested variant. ἰδών is a participle declined in the aorist tense, active voice, nominative case, masculine gender, and singular number. It is derived from the aorist tense verb εἶδον. εἰδώς is a participle declined in the perfect tense, active voice, nominative case, ...


4

My Hebrew is basic, but I do read Greek. Sarah refers to Abraham as her kurios in Genesis 18:12 in the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament.) Yet she does not address him directly with that word in her commentary of 1 Peter, Karen Jobes (2005:205) notes that "This noun [kurios] is the only lexical connection between the story of Sarah and Peter’s claim.” ...


4

Of course, אֱלֹהִים ʾĕlōhîm has a much broader semantic range than YHWH, as implied by the way the question is framed. They are by no means synonymous. The entry in Brown-Driver-Briggs lists a number of references where ʾĕlōhîm is used of one who stands in God's place (as HALOT also has it): Some references are regularly cited together here, especially ...


3

In Keil and Delitzsch's Commentary,(2 Kings 2) The request of Elisha is evidently based upon Deu 21:17, where בּ פּי־שׁנים denotes the double portion which the first-born received in (of) the father's inheritance, as R. Levi b. Gers., Seb. Mnst., Vatabl., Grot., and others have perceived, and as Hengstenberg (Beitrr. ii. p. 133f.) in our days ...


3

Exodus 22:18 (note it is 22:17 in the Hebrew text) is one of those texts which may be especially susceptible to anachronistic treatments based on putative translations rather than relevant historical and linguistic evidence. First, then, the text: Masoretic text: :מְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה mĕkaššēpâ lōʾ tĕḥayyeh You shall not allow a mĕkaššēpâ to ...


3

Stocks are a fastening device similar to the modern equivalent of hand cuffs, but are fixed in position. Leg stocks would go around the prisoner's ankles such that they can not remove their feet and thus can not move from their position. Additionally, stocks generally didn't allow for any flexibility of movement because of how they were designed. Leg ...


3

A: To help us answer this question we need to examine both the Greek words from which are translated the terms “darkness”, “in the darkness” and “walk in the darkness”, and also the context in which the Apostle John uses these terms. Confining our focus to the Greek text of John's writings will help us avoid imposing our own preconceptions on what these ...


3

Well, there is some ambiguity around the meaning of the phrase τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῶν ἁγίων, although the correct choice appears to be mostly a settled issue among modern translations and commentaries. To define our terms: τοὺς πτωχοὺς = the poor = head noun τῶν ἁγίων = the saints = genitive (in the genitive case as a reflection of its relationship with τοὺς ...


3

Because OP specifically asked also for Aramaic, I'd like to add some info from Aramaic perspective. In Aramaic the word in use is ܣܓ݂ܶܕ݂ܘ which roughly means [they] worshipped / adored / paid homage to [someone] This is according to Aramaic/Syriac dictionaries. There is no "greeting" there. Is "worship" an appropriate translation for this word? Is ...


3

Two very easy questions. Question one: the answer is Hebrew. Question 2: the word used in Gen. 1:26 is אָדָם (ʼādām, “man”); the word in 1:27 is הָאָדָם (hāʼādām “the man”).


3

Even when words have meanings that span semantic ranges in other languages (such as how both Hebrew and Greek use the same words for wife and woman), context is key to understanding the meaning. In fact, words rarely map one-to-one across languages. This is why mechanical translations don't work for the final copy. Take Jesus' words for example: But I ...


3

From here it says that the Archaic definition of the word "mansion" was "an abode or dwelling place". The definition of the English word "mansion" has simply changed over time. This verse is therefore more accurately translated to modern readers in the NABRE translation as "mansion" here does not mean "a large estate" as the word would tend to indicate in ...


2

Isaiah chapter 14 talks of the pomp and splendour of the king of Babylon (see verse 14:4), who had ruled the nations in anger, and his fate after his overthrow by the king of Persia. He had compared himself to the morning star ('Lucifer', from Latin lucem ferre, which mean "light-bearer", a name for the dawn appearance of the planet Venus) and had thought ...


2

There is a logic to it in each case. In Gen 22,14 and Ex 17,15 YHWH is part of a place-name. The English translators have chosen to transfer the name rather than translating it (as the LXX and Vulgata do). Ex 6,3 and Ps 83,18 both discuss specifically the question of the deity’s name. You might note that in Ex 6,3 the Vulgata has the Hebraeism “Adonai”. ...


2

The full verse of Matthew 24.29 reads in Greek: Εὐθέως δὲ μετὰ τὴν θλῖψιν τῶν ἡμερῶν ἐκείνων ὁ ἥλιος σκοτισθήσεται, καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φέγγος αὐτῆς, καὶ οἱ ἀστέρες πεσοῦνται ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν σαλευθήσονται. (Matthew 24.29, NA28) Or in English: "Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and ...


2

As already noted, the LXX is the best place to start, since the Greek word ὀρθοτομέω only occurs once in the Greek New Testament (hapax legomenon). The below verses compare the Greek LXX with the Hebrew MT, which will point us to the Hebrew words. In turn, we will look at the Hebrew words. Proverbs 3:6 (MT) בְּכָל־דְּרָכֶיךָ דָעֵהוּ וְהוּא יְיַשֵּׁר ...


2

Short answer: Jesus was referring to the authority Peter would have as an elder in making judgments regarding church discipline; he would be an emissary of the divine court, delivering verdicts that had already been determined in heaven. Matthew 16:19 is an excellent example of why it is crucial to read the text in the original language prior to drawing ...


2

ξύλον (xylon) is a very ordinary word meaning "wood" (as, for example, in xylophone). Here it means wooden fetters worn on the legs or feet, or possibly around the neck. To translate it as "irons" seems really bizarre. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dcu%2Flon1


2

The Idea in Brief The soul is the very life that all living creatures appear to share. (Thus no cadaver, whether man or animal, possesses the "nephesh.") However, only human beings possess the spirit, which appears to be the "Image of God." Discussion The passage of Hebrews 4:12 appears to discriminate between the material and immaterial aspects of the ...


2

Rather than spend a month or two answering all of the questions laid out ἄνωθεν (wink), I'll add yet another perspective that neither authority nor time seem to be the dominant categories according to LSJ, but instead: spatial position (as when the "veil of the shrine was split from above unto below" in Mt 27:51), which may include heaven above earth, and ...



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