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A survey of the uses of these words in Johannine literature will be conducted. ἀγάπη (agape): "The quality of warm regard for and interest in another, esteem, affection, regard, love (without limitation to very intimate relationships, and very seldom in general Greek of sexual attraction)."1 This word appears in the noun form 30 times in 25 verses of ...


7

This may be related to another question about the parable that is the context for this question on Matthew 18:34 in particular. OP: What is the original word used in our oldest manuscripts and how has that word been traditionally used? The word used here for "torturers" is τοῖς βασανισταῖς or, in its lexical form, βασανιστής (basanistēs). There are no ...


6

There were two main qualifications, one is primarily cultural, and one is really universal. A host family (or person) would need to be hospitable. Abraham, Lot, and others throughout the Old Testament were "lovers of strangers" (to use an anachronistic expression derived from the Greek word for hospitality). In the ANE, hospitality and being a good ...


6

OLD TESTAMENT USAGE: The word "poiema" us used only twice in the New Testament, as you say. But in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the same word is used several times: 1Sam. 8:8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt, even to this day—with which they have forsaken Me and served other ...


6

Within Johannine literature, there seems to be quite a bit of overlap in the uses of the agapao and phileo word groups. Here are a number of pairings of verses across the body of work wherein there seems to be no distinguishable difference of usage. Each pairing below begins with a verse using the agapao word group followed by a similar one using the phileo ...


5

If indeed the Gospel of Matthew was written in Greek, then Matthew simply wrote the Greek word Χριστοῦ (pronounced [khrē-stoo']), which is the genitive of Χριστός (pronounced [khrē-stos']). Matthew 1:1 Βίβλος γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, υἱοῦ Δαβὶδ, υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ Declension Paradigm of the Greek Word χριστός Nominative, singular number: χριστός ...


4

When the Tanak was first written, it was written without vowels. In the early Middle Ages (ca AD 800), scribes known as the Masoretes added the system of vowel points (niqqud or "diacretic markings") that are used in pointed Hebrew texts since then. Other systems were developed at roughly the same time (as Hebrew became less of a spoken language), but only ...


4

As you've pointed out, Gehenna (γέεννα) is just a transliteration of the Hebrew for "Valley of Hinnom" (גֵּי הִנֹּם) and the Aramaic for the same (גֵיהִנָּם / ܓܗܢܐ). The NET translators point out, This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5–6; 32:35), ...


4

Where the phrase is used Here are several places where the apostle Paul uses this phrase, usually translated by the ESV as "The statement is trustworthy": (1Tim 1:15 [GNT]) πιστὸς ὁ λόγος καὶ πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος, ὅτι Χριστὸς Ἰησοῦς ἦλθεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἁμαρτωλοὺς σῶσαι· ὧν πρῶτός εἰμι ἐγώ, (1Tim 3:1 [GNT]) Πιστὸς ὁ λόγος· εἴ τις ἐπισκοπῆς ὀρέγεται, καλοῦ ...


4

From the American Heritage Dictionary: charity ... often Charity Christianity The theological virtue defined as love directed first toward God but also toward oneself and one's neighbors as objects of God's love. [Middle English charite, from Old French, Christian love, from Latin cāritās, affection, from cārus, dear; see kā- in ...


3

Verse 15:2 says: וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה מַה תִּתֶּן לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר The phrase at issue here is "אַדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה" -- the word on the right being "Adonai" which literally means "my lords" (note plural), but in context is a reference to God. The word to the left is the Divine ...


3

The classic Jewish commentator Rashi quoting the Medrash and the Talmud says: and Abraham weighed out to Ephron: עֶפְרֹן is spelled without a “vav,” because he promised much but did not do even a little [i.e., he promised the cave as a gift but took a great deal of money for it], for he took from him large shekels, viz. centenaria [worth one ...


3

It seems to me that there could scarcely be much question about the meaning once we take into account the multiple references to the Jerusalem collection project throughout both Acts and Paul's letters (see e.g. Acts 11:27–30; 24:17; 1 Cor 16:1ff; 2 Cor 9 etc; cf Gal 2:10). In the immediate context, Paul makes a parallel between how the Gentiles have ...


3

We know from Joshua 7:15 that the guilty party "and all that he has" will be punished, so Achan and all his family (and their livestock) were killed. This evokes the memory of Korach, leader of the rebellion against Moshe and Aharon; when he and the other rebels were killed (by the earth swallowing them up) their families were also killed (Num 16:33). But ...


3

Frank's textual answer seems very tenuous to me. Verb-subject disagreement is far more prevalent than the form here (inconsistent numeration within the same verse when referring to the same subject). So it seems irrelevant to invoke that to justify this construct. Moreover, verb-subject disagreement has literary function (emphasis) which is sorely lacking ...


3

Hebrew in other places will use the singular when there is a group acting as one or being acted upon as one. From that, I would understand the "he" used in the first part to be "a group referred to in the singular." After that, the writer used the plural. I answered a similar question about subject-verb agreement previously. Short answer, a reader would ...


3

Both the Greek verb προσκυνέω and its Hebrew equivalent השתחוה literally mean "pay homage," "make obeisance." It is an act of reverence given to one's superior. Contrary to popular belief, it is not solely used in reference to God. For example, see Exo. 18:7: And Moses went out to meet his father in law, and did obeisance, and kissed him; and they asked ...


2

What is 'hermeneutics'? I covered the definition of hermeneutics in more detail in this answer, but in a nutshell, hermeneutics is the field of study concerned with how we interpret communication. (Biblical Hermeneutics is specifically concerned with how we interpret the Biblical text.) Why hermeneutics? That is a really great question. There are a ...


2

According to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, the root of the 3rd person plural verb προσεκυνησαν; i.e., προσκυνέω, (pros-koo-neh'-oh) means "to fawn or crouch to, that is, (literally or figuratively) prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore)". Moulton (Analytical Lexicon) explained that, according to the context, προσκυνέω can mean: in the ...


2

Isaiah chapter 14 talks of the pomp and splendour of the king of Babylon (see verse 14:4), who had ruled the nations in anger, and his fate after his overthrow by the king of Persia. He had compared himself to the morning star ('Lucifer', from Latin lucem ferre, which mean "light-bearer", a name for the dawn appearance of the planet Venus) and had thought ...


2

The Hebrew text of Gen. 15:2 states, וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר You stated, It is my understanding that this word is an emphatic of Adon, which means Father. The Hebrew word אָדוֹן (adon) does not mean "father," but "master," "lord." For example, ...


1

2 Tim 4:2 and Titus 1:3 both have τὸν λόγον (ton logon) in Greek. The decision whether to caplitalize or not is wholly down to the instinct of the editors of that particular translation. It is worth noting, too, that this is a "luxury" of English: not every language system as the same lower-, upper-case distinctions that modern English does. What the ...


1

The Greek adjective here is ἄξιος, which has two meanings in the Christian New Testament: (a) It means to be deserving. So the slave was "deserving" of a flogging (Lu 12:48); the prodigal son was not "deserving" to be called the son of his father (Lk 15:19); John the Baptist was not "deserving" to untie the sandals of Jesus (Jn 1:27); the Centurion in ...


1

Manuscripts p66 and p75, and codices Vaticanus, Sinaiticus, and Alexandrianus at John 4:24a show the Greek wording ΠΝΕΥΜΑΟΘΕΟΣ (πνευμα ο θεος / spirit the supreme deity) in full or abbreviated form. And since there's no indefinite article ("a") in biblical Greek (and of the English language renderings you cited), the NASB and NIV renderings in English are ...


1

When one first reads this, perhaps they may be compelled to examine Gen. 2:7 (since Paulos quotes it), in which it is written, English translation: And YHVH God formed man [of] the dust of the ground, and He breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul. Hebrew text (Masoretic): וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם ...


1

A simple guide to the development and use of ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (χριστος, cristos) in Scripture: Hebrew "משׁיח" (mâshı̂yach) = with few exceptions, any Jewish man anointed with sacred oil by a Judaic priest; ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (χριστος) in LXX = Hebrew "משׁיח" (mâshı̂yach); Intertestamental period & Gospels = a hoped-for anointed one thought to be a coming, king-like, ...



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