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24

The Hebrew word was used for winged creatures that weren't insects. Applying 'modern science' to an ancient culture's classifications of the world is anachronistic. The Tyndale Bible Dictionary reads: Modern scientists classify organisms on the basis of internal and external structure, but the biblical writers generally classified organisms according to ...


12

In modern Hebrew, עטלף, the word to which I believe you are referring, indeed means bat. But Targum Yonason (I know the Hebrew, I am referring to the source material at the moment) translates that word as טרפידא in Aramaic, which, based on the roots, (to capture prey by chasing it down and ripping it apart) leans more towards a sort of owl or other bird of ...


8

Short Answer: "Generally it is the only translation" (but it is complicated) First, there are two (three?) different words in the references you give. The Nephilim (נְפִילִים; a word only ever found in plural form in OT) only appears three times in Gen 6:4 and Num 13:33 (twice). The word in 1 Ch 20:8 (also 1 Ch 20:6 and 1 Ch 8:2; cf. also 1 Ch 4:12) is ...


7

An accurate translation of εκκλησια would be 'assembly'. Also, εκκλησια is used as a near-synonym with συναγωγη. Here are a few examples of εκκλησια in the Septuagint (though I am using the common verse numbers, not the LXX's). Leviticus 8.3: assemble (εκκλησιασον) all the gathering (συναγωγην) Deuteronomy 9.10: the day of the assembly (εκκλησιας) ...


7

OLD TESTAMENT USAGE: The word "poiema" us used only twice in the New Testament, as you say. But in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the same word is used several times: 1Sam. 8:8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt, even to this day—with which they have forsaken Me and served other ...


7

This may be related to another question about the parable that is the context for this question on Matthew 18:34 in particular. OP: What is the original word used in our oldest manuscripts and how has that word been traditionally used? The word used here for "torturers" is τοῖς βασανισταῖς or, in its lexical form, βασανιστής (basanistēs). There are no ...


7

The key clause in Genesis 2:18 is אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ ʾeʿĕśeh-lô ʿēzer kᵉnegdô I will make for him a helper fit for him This noun (עֵזֶר, ʿēzer, the same root that the name "Ezra" comes from) appears 21× in the Hebrew Bible.1 It is indeed used for Israel's help from the LORD, unambiguously, e.g., in Ps 33:20[esv] Our soul waits for ...


6

There were two main qualifications, one is primarily cultural, and one is really universal. A host family (or person) would need to be hospitable. Abraham, Lot, and others throughout the Old Testament were "lovers of strangers" (to use an anachronistic expression derived from the Greek word for hospitality). In the ANE, hospitality and being a good ...


5

Both the Greek verb προσκυνέω and its Hebrew equivalent השתחוה literally mean "pay homage," "make obeisance." It is an act of reverence given to one's superior. Contrary to popular belief, it is not solely used in reference to God. For example, see Exo. 18:7: And Moses went out to meet his father in law, and did obeisance, and kissed him; and they asked ...


4

Verse 15:2 says: וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה מַה תִּתֶּן לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר The phrase at issue here is "אַדֹנָי יֱהֹוִה" -- the word on the right being "Adonai" which literally means "my lords" (note plural), but in context is a reference to God. The word to the left is the Divine ...


4

In classic Greek, "ekklesia" referred to a political assembly of citizens. This word was borrowed by the New Testament writers to refer to an assembly of believers. It's not always easy to tell, because the English word "church" has multiple meanings, but the primary meaning in the NT is the gathering of believers. Here are some of the less ambiguous ...


4

The scriptures offer no specific definition, although we can infer one from Exodus 22:22-24: "You shall not afflict any widow [יתום] or orphan. If you afflict him at all, and if he does cry out to me, I will surely hear his cry; and My anger will be kindled, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall become widows and your children ...


3

We know from Joshua 7:15 that the guilty party "and all that he has" will be punished, so Achan and all his family (and their livestock) were killed. This evokes the memory of Korach, leader of the rebellion against Moshe and Aharon; when he and the other rebels were killed (by the earth swallowing them up) their families were also killed (Num 16:33). But ...


3

Frank's textual answer seems very tenuous to me. Verb-subject disagreement is far more prevalent than the form here (inconsistent numeration within the same verse when referring to the same subject). So it seems irrelevant to invoke that to justify this construct. Moreover, verb-subject disagreement has literary function (emphasis) which is sorely lacking ...


3

Hebrew in other places will use the singular when there is a group acting as one or being acted upon as one. From that, I would understand the "he" used in the first part to be "a group referred to in the singular." After that, the writer used the plural. I answered a similar question about subject-verb agreement previously. Short answer, a reader would ...


3

Because OP specifically asked also for Aramaic, I'd like to add some info from Aramaic perspective. In Aramaic the word in use is ܣܓ݂ܶܕ݂ܘ which roughly means [they] worshipped / adored / paid homage to [someone] This is according to Aramaic/Syriac dictionaries. There is no "greeting" there. Is "worship" an appropriate translation for this word? Is ...


3

A: To help us answer this question we need to examine both the Greek words from which are translated the terms “darkness”, “in the darkness” and “walk in the darkness”, and also the context in which the Apostle John uses these terms. Confining our focus to the Greek text of John's writings will help us avoid imposing our own preconceptions on what these ...


3

My Hebrew is basic, but I do read Greek. Sarah refers to Abraham as her kurios in Genesis 18:12 in the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament.) Yet she does not address him directly with that word in her commentary of 1 Peter, Karen Jobes (2005:205) notes that "This noun [kurios] is the only lexical connection between the story of Sarah and Peter’s claim.” ...


3

Stocks are a fastening device similar to the modern equivalent of hand cuffs, but are fixed in position. Leg stocks would go around the prisoner's ankles such that they can not remove their feet and thus can not move from their position. Additionally, stocks generally didn't allow for any flexibility of movement because of how they were designed. Leg ...


2

The Hebrew text of Gen. 15:2 states, וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר You stated, It is my understanding that this word is an emphatic of Adon, which means Father. The Hebrew word אָדוֹן (adon) does not mean "father," but "master," "lord." For example, ...


2

What is 'hermeneutics'? I covered the definition of hermeneutics in more detail in this answer, but in a nutshell, hermeneutics is the field of study concerned with how we interpret communication. (Biblical Hermeneutics is specifically concerned with how we interpret the Biblical text.) Why hermeneutics? That is a really great question. There are a ...


2

According to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, the root of the 3rd person plural verb προσεκυνησαν; i.e., προσκυνέω, (pros-koo-neh'-oh) means "to fawn or crouch to, that is, (literally or figuratively) prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore)". Moulton (Analytical Lexicon) explained that, according to the context, προσκυνέω can mean: in the ...


2

There is a logic to it in each case. In Gen 22,14 and Ex 17,15 YHWH is part of a place-name. The English translators have chosen to transfer the name rather than translating it (as the LXX and Vulgata do). Ex 6,3 and Ps 83,18 both discuss specifically the question of the deity’s name. You might note that in Ex 6,3 the Vulgata has the Hebraeism “Adonai”. ...


2

Isaiah chapter 14 talks of the pomp and splendour of the king of Babylon (see verse 14:4), who had ruled the nations in anger, and his fate after his overthrow by the king of Persia. He had compared himself to the morning star ('Lucifer', from Latin lucem ferre, which mean "light-bearer", a name for the dawn appearance of the planet Venus) and had thought ...


2

The full verse of Matthew 24.29 reads in Greek: Εὐθέως δὲ μετὰ τὴν θλῖψιν τῶν ἡμερῶν ἐκείνων ὁ ἥλιος σκοτισθήσεται, καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φέγγος αὐτῆς, καὶ οἱ ἀστέρες πεσοῦνται ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τῶν οὐρανῶν σαλευθήσονται. (Matthew 24.29, NA28) Or in English: "Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and ...


2

As already noted, the LXX is the best place to start, since the Greek word ὀρθοτομέω only occurs once in the Greek New Testament (hapax legomenon). The below verses compare the Greek LXX with the Hebrew MT, which will point us to the Hebrew words. In turn, we will look at the Hebrew words. Proverbs 3:6 (MT) בְּכָל־דְּרָכֶיךָ דָעֵהוּ וְהוּא יְיַשֵּׁר ...


2

Short answer: Jesus was referring to the authority Peter would have as an elder in making judgments regarding church discipline; he would be an emissary of the divine court, delivering verdicts that had already been determined in heaven. Matthew 16:19 is an excellent example of why it is crucial to read the text in the original language prior to drawing ...


2

ξύλον (xylon) is a very ordinary word meaning "wood" (as, for example, in xylophone). Here it means wooden fetters worn on the legs or feet, or possibly around the neck. To translate it as "irons" seems really bizarre. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3Dcu%2Flon1


1

There are 24 occurrences of Ἕλλην in the Christian New Testament, of which 13 occurrences appear by the hand of Paul. On the other hand, there are 151 occurrences of ἔθνος in the Christian New Testament, of which 48 occurrences appear by the hand of Paul. A survey of uses and translations of the occurrences of both words show particular tendencies in the ...


1

I think you're focus in this verse is misplaced. Genesis 2:18 quotes G-d as saying that he will make make man a "helper corresponding to him" (Art Scroll translation) but the Hebrew says "ezer k'negdo" which literally means a "helper against him.". The Babylonian Talmud's commentary on this verse (Yevamot 63a), and Rashi's commentary, explain that the ...



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