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The textual variants are ἰδὼν and εἰδώς. According to Tischendorf, ἰδών is the well attested variant. ἰδών is a participle declined in the aorist tense, active voice, nominative case, masculine gender, and singular number. It is derived from the aorist tense verb εἶδον. εἰδώς is a participle declined in the perfect tense, active voice, nominative case, ...


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Most commentary on this passage (and Mt 12:25) stumbles on the rather misleading translation of "ἐνθυμήσεις" into English as "thoughts". In ancient Greek philosophy, "thumos" was quite distinct from a person's intellect (nous, noeo, noema) or reason (logizomai). Thumos, according to Liddell and Scott, is "soul, spirit, as the principle of life, feeling and ...



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