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The textual variants are ἰδὼν and εἰδώς. According to Tischendorf, ἰδών is the well attested variant. ἰδών is a participle declined in the aorist tense, active voice, nominative case, masculine gender, and singular number. It is derived from the aorist tense verb εἶδον. εἰδώς is a participle declined in the perfect tense, active voice, nominative case, ...


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Most commentary on this passage (and Mt 12:25) stumbles on the rather misleading translation of "ἐνθυμήσεις" into English as "thoughts". In ancient Greek philosophy, "thumos" was quite distinct from a person's intellect (nous, noeo, noema) or reason (logizomai). Thumos, according to Liddell and Scott, is "soul, spirit, as the principle of life, feeling and ...


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Aorist In non-indicative moods (like the imperative) the "tense" indicates aspect and not time. So the aorist here indicates either a puntiliar (instantaneous) or undefined (generic) kind of action. Passive The active voice is used in Greek when the subject is performing the action (e.g. "he is eating"), while the passive is used to indicate an action ...



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