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There is no particular reason to shy away from the rhetorical aspects of the contents of the Bible. Yes, I'm a rhetorician (i.e., an expert in rhetoric), but any ol' Christian or Jew can appreciate any one or more of the following concepts: Thesis A "book" of the Bible, whether it comprises history, law, prophecy, poetry, proverbs, Gospels, epistles ...
The technical terms you're looking for are: Greek - proem from προοίμιον "opening, introduction"; Latin - exordium, the Latin equivalent of proem (see also Wikipedia) These are, essentially, the author's own "preface" to the following work which orients readers to its leading themes and aims. The much-cited study by B. A. van Groningen, "The Proems of ...
There are several terms for this. I'll list them from most colloquial to most technical: Purpose, aim, or goal Authorial intent Telos (Greek for end or goal) Illocutionary aim (or illocutionary intent; from Speech-Act Theory) These are probably the main terms you'll come across nowadays.
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