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16

The Greek word for robber in John 18:40 is λῃστής. This word is defined by Strong's Enhanced Lexicon this way: 3027 ἀρχιλῃστής, λῃστής [lestes /lace·tace/] n m. From leizomai (to plunder);15 occurrences; AV translates as “thief” 11 times, and “robber” four times. 1 a robber, plunderer, freebooter, brigand. The Greek word used as murder here is ...


14

According to the notes on the NET Bible: This is one of the hardest verses in the gospels to interpret. Various views exist for what generation means. (1) Some take it as meaning “race” and thus as an assurance that the Jewish race (nation) will not pass away. But it is very questionable that the Greek term γενεά (genea) can have this meaning. Two other ...


13

The Hebrew word שמיים (shamayim), which is translated into English, is what is known in Judaism as a כנוי (kinnui), or a "substitute," "nickname." The reason why Matthew uses "kingdom of Heaven" more often than "kingdom of God" is because he wrote to a Jewish audience, and the Jews did not pronounce the Tetragrammaton יהוה, and sometimes not even the word ...


11

One thing we might note is the familiarity with parts of the Synoptic tradition which the author assumes of his reader. For instance, in John 1:40, the author introduces Andrew as Simon Peter's brother before having introduced Simon Peter. In 2:1f the author speaks of Jesus' mother, never introducing her as Mary. And in John 11:1-2 Lazarus is introduced as ...


10

The fourth evangelist must have known the basic literary structure of Mark's Gospel: Starting with John the Baptist, baptism of Christ, the call of the disciples (Joh 1:35-51) and ending with Passion and Resurrection of Christ.1 Some more compositional analogies: Feeding of the crowd: Mk 6:30-44, Mk 8:1-9, Joh 6:5-13 Jesus on the lake: Mk 6:45-52, Mk ...


9

Popular interpretations as to what event is anticipated by "the kingdom of God" coming in power include the following: The transfiguration The resurrection The ascension The day of Pentecost The second coming A couple things stand out in the passage that are worth noting. First, Jesus has just given indication that the disciples may end up soon ...


8

There are a few suggestion as to why Matthew describes two people compared to the single person in the Markan and Lukan accounts. That Matthew is implying that there were other exorcisms (e.g. Mark 1:23ff) or blind-healings (e.g. Mark 8:22ff) and uses extras to compensate That it's introduced to provide symmetry as a 'popular folk motiff' (this from, I ...


8

Some say the "Kingdom of Heaven" refers to the a physical/political kingdom on earth while the "Kingdom of God" is the spiritual, coming reign of Christ. Arguments against the two being the same often come down to hair splitting and misinterpretation of verses. For example, the site listed above relies on a single verse in an attempt to say they are ...


7

To build on blundin's answer, the most likely sense of the word in this context is "brigand". The NET Bible includes this footnote: It is possible that Barabbas was merely a robber or highwayman, but more likely, given the use of the term ληστής (lhsth") in Josephus and other early sources, that he was a guerrilla warrior or revolutionary leader. See ...


7

This one line "Where there is a dead body, there the vultures will gather." is an idiom. This would be the equivalent of saying, "Where there's smoke, there's fire." Long answer: Luke 17:31-37 31 On that day no one who is on the housetop, with possessions inside, should go down to get them. Likewise, no one in the field should go back for ...


6

A few sources that might be helpful on this are as follows: Andreas Köstenberger A Theology of John's Gospel and Letters: The Word, the Christ, the Son of God D. A. Carson The Gospel According to John Mark Strauss Four Portraits, One Jesus Köstenberger argues extensively for the historicity of John's gospel. He surveys the history of scholarship in ...


6

Eschatology makes hypocrites of us all. The most figurative book in the Bible is interpreted literally, and literal texts are interpreted figuratively to meet our preconceived expectations, making a secondary issue into one of the most incendiary. Using methods of sensus plenior: Matthew writes in a Hebrew form similar to poetry, but has nothing to do with ...


6

Alfred Edersheim, on Page 1135 of his book, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, writes: It could not have been an eclipse, since it was the time of full moon; nor can we place reliance on the later reports on this subject of ecclesiastical writers. It seems only in accordance with the Evangelic narrative to regard the occurrence of the event as ...


5

Isaiah 51:17 (ESV): Wake yourself, wake yourself, stand up, O Jerusalem, you who have drunk from the hand of the Lord the cup of his wrath, who have drunk to the dregs the bowl, the cup of staggering See also Jer 49:12 (ESV): For thus says the LORD: “If those who did not deserve to drink the cup must drink it, will you go unpunished? You shall not ...


5

(I'm answering just from the text. I do not have deep background with gospels.) A festive meal (holiday, Shabbat, others) would have included (and still includes) wine; we know this from discussions in the mishna, which spans the time Jesus lived. In addition to beginning the meal by sanctifying a cup of wine, there are prayers after the meal that are ...


5

A Generation is 40 years in Bible. Here are some examples. Numbers 32:13 (ESV) - And the Lord's anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation that had done evil in the sight of the Lord was gone. Deuteronomy 1:34-36 (ESV) - And the Lord heard your words and was angered, and he swore, ‘Not ...


5

The rich young ruler would be an antitype of the little child. A little child (παιδίον) will rely entirely on their parent. The rich young ruler was instead relying on his own riches. God calls us to give up this world and instead be dependent on Him.


5

If you want to harmonize the accounts, probably there were two angels. Were they men or were they angels? Both Mark and Luke say they were men dressed in white robes, which can easily be understood to be visions of angels. Especially in Luke's account this is obvious, since it would be unusual to describe a man with a robe that "gleamed like lightning." In ...


4

Other gospels simplified If you accept Matthean priority, the question becomes, "Why did Mark and Luke halve people?" It's even simpler than that since Luke usually prefers Mark's text. Robert Dean Luginbill (author and curator of Ichthys.com) argues: There were two, so Matthew gives two. But the fact of "two" raises questions which a concentration on ...


4

Eli and Monica's answers already contain much helpful information, but I want to further legitimize their answers by putting a term to what they (and especially Eli) have said. Paul is using the common literary device of metonymy. This is no uncommon or arcane linguistic phenomenon. By the way, did I mention that I just bought a new set of wheels two days ...


4

Prelims. Just for comparison, the three synoptic texts from UBS4: Mt 22:37 ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτῷ, Ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ καρδίᾳ σου καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ψυχῇ σου καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου· Mk 12:30 καὶ ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου. Lk 10:27 ... ...


3

I'm not aware of anyone who has argued that none of the synoptic gospels relied on each other. This is primarily because we know Luke used sources (Luke 1:1-3). You may be able to find someone arguing that Matthew and Mark wrote independently from each other, but I doubt it.


3

What an interesting find! It has some implications for the Synoptic Problem. And of course, the solution you pick influences the significance of switching the names. Markan priority If we assume that Mark wrote his gospel first, Matthew and Luke must have decided to swap the order of names for some reason. One possible reason could be that ...


3

Yes. A thorough comparison of the gospels shows that "kingdom of heaven" is Matthew's term for "kingdom of God". Whenever "kingdom of God" appears in a parallel passage, Matthew almost always rephrases it "kingdom of heaven". I've highlighted these two phrases in the following examples. The parable of the mustard seed Mark 4:30-32 He also said, ...


3

Sometimes robber is generally used as a collective term to refer to rebels or outlaws in a rebellion who steal, kill, and destroy... After all, they steal lives and property. So in this case, I would venture to say that Barabbas, in the rebellion, went through the countryside, stealing from the people and killed as well.


3

I think Jack Douglas did a good job of giving the appropriate options available for that passage. I don't think any preterist argument really does a good enough job handling the rest of the Text available, especially referring to the Rapture. Anyways, Jack said this: (3) generation may refer to “the generation that sees the signs of the end” (vv. ...


3

If such scholarship exists, I don't know about it. But there is a slightly nuanced position that suggests that the material in the Fourth Gospel has at least as much, if not more, historical weight than the Synoptics. What you seem to be asking for is scholar who takes John's chronology over, say, Mark's every time. That seems a tall order since the ...


3

I'm going to say that it's somewhat invalid to ask about the validity of a hermeneutic. For instance, most modern biblical scholars would say that allegories and typologies should not be used as valid proofs for doctrine. And yet St. Paul "explicitly indulges in allegory (allegoroumena, Galatians 4;24), he uses it to draw the conclusion that “we are not ...


3

Mark is without doubt the most straightforward of the gospels. The book is short and engaging. It is more critical of the disciples than the other gospel, often in a humorous way. Often Mark includes details that Matthew and Luke choose to leave out, i.e. that the grass was green when the 5000 sat down to eat. Mark often chooses a few stories and tells ...


3

As to #1 - Different Quantity of Objects No reconciliation needed across the gospels, because if it is true that Christ said four things, he also said three things. There is no untruth in noting the lesser amount, just a shift in emphasis. Now as far as reconciling four things in the Greek with the three things of the Hebrew text, the Hebrew word לֵבָב ...



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