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11

Yes, there is at least one Hebrew rendition of the LXX that is aimed at reconstructing its vorlage (i.e. the text from which it was translated, in this case unpointed Biblical Hebrew). The Parallel Aligned Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek text was created as part of the CATSS (Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Study) project under the direction of Emmanuel Tov ...


11

The Idea in Brief Before the appearance of the Masoretic Text in the Tenth Century, at least three early witnesses attest to the forty day period in Jonah: the Dead Sea Scrolls at both Wadi Murabba'at and at the so-called "Cave of Horrors" in Nahal Hever, which both date to the First Century; and, thirdly, the Targum Jonathan, which dates to the Second to ...


8

As alluded to in the question, the primary (mostly) complete witnesses to the text of the Septuagint are codices bound up with the Christian New Testament. Pride of place goes to Vaticanus in which we have a nearly complete Greek OT. Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus also provide valuable witness. These codices have been dated to the 4th Century CE. Unfortunately,...


5

The comment of the Apostle Paul that “The worker deserves his pay” appears to have been the prevailing interpretation of this verse according to the oral traditions of the Jews during the First Century and beyond. For example, in regard to this passage from Deuteronomy, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus wrote the following in his compendium on the ...


5

These reference the words of Jesus, found in Luke 10:7 (emphasis mine): 7 And remain in the same house, eating and drinking such things as they give, for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Do not go from house to house. Peter calls Paul's writings Scripture as well: 14 Therefore, beloved, looking forward to these things, be diligent to be found by ...


5

The basic answer to your question: Why does the Septuagint omit Isaiah 2:22 when it's in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Leningrad Codex? is of course: because the Septuagint was not translated from the Dead Sea Scrolls or the Leningrad Codex. That said, the more satisfying answer will be harder to come by. As in most cases where we see a discrepancy ...


5

Subsequent to the publication of Greek Myths and Christian Mystery, referenced by another answer, Manolis Papoutsakis made an ingenious hypothesis that may finally solve the mystery as to how the odd translation arose. In his paper, "Ostriches into Sirens: Towards an Understanding of a Septuagint Crux" (Journal of Jewish Studies, Vol. LV, No. 1, Spring 2004)...


5

This is a fantastic question, but one that appears to have no clear answer at this time. I've done some digging around and though I could not find an exact answer, I found some illuminating information that may help your or others in your research. Greek Myths and Christian Mystery by Hugo Rahner provides some significant insight. Beginning on page 357, he ...


4

As the OP correctly notes, Hebrews 1:6: ὅταν δὲ πάλιν εἰσαγάγῃ τὸν πρωτότοκον εἰς τὴν οἰκουμένην, λέγει Καὶ προσκυνησάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες ἄγγελοι θεοῦ. (Westcott and Hort) And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, “Let all God's angels worship him.” (ESV) is most likely a quote of an LXX version of Deuteronomy 32:43 ...


4

No, they are not synonymous. In way of background, we note that the Hebrew rûaḥ is commonly rendered by the Greek pneuma, both commonly rendered by the English spirit. The OP is wondering why, in Isaiah 40:13, the translator has chosen the Greek nous ("mind") rather than the more common pneuma ("spirit"). Despite the default translations rûaḥ ↔ ...


3

When Jesus addressed the crowds on the mount/plain would they have understood "thy name" to be Eil and Elaha (also written as Alaha). See: 'What word did Jesus use for God in Aramaic?' Matthew's Gospel was written in Greek for a Greek-speaking audience. We know that the Old Testament references used in Matthew were from the Septuagint, so the author did not ...


3

It means "sickness". The lexical form is μαλακία (malakia), for which BDAG gives: condition of bodily weakness, debility, weakness, sickness Isaiah 53:3ab is translated by NETS: But his form was without honor, failing beyond all men,    a man being in calamity and knowing how to bear sickness The Greek malakia here provides ...


3

Although my initial reaction to this question was (not unlike the response in another answer here) that obviously this day-of-the-week superscription (DWS) reflects the Jewish liturgical background of the translator, this conclusion depends on several assumptions: The phrase "τῆς μιᾶς σαββάτων" is original to the Old Greek translation of the Psalms ("LXX")...


2

The question: What does the inclusion of τῆς μιᾶς σαββάτων in the LXX of Psa. 24:1 demonstrate about the religious identity of the translator(s) of Psa. 24:1 into the LXX? Forgive me if I'm oversimplifying, but doesn't the inclusion (or addition) of a phrase from the Hebrew Talmud logically suggest a Jewish religious identity? I don't see how it could ...


2

The Idea in Brief The LXX speaks of two outcomes: one regarding the developed fetus and one undeveloped. The Masoretic Text however simply presents the fetuses in the plural, and in this respect there is no amplification or clarification between developed and undeveloped in the Masoretic Text. In summary, if the Masoretic Text carries the original literary ...


2

Larry Hurtado made a table of all known 2nd and 3rd century Christian manuscripts together with what form the manuscript takes. This includes manuscripts where it is unclear whether it is Christian or Jewish in origin and some definitely Jewish texts for comparison. I think that means it likely includes all LXX manuscripts. At any rate it gives a large ...


2

Susan has given a typically well-informed answer to this question, and Noah has expanded on it with his link to Hurtado. Allow me to add one small word of caution: There is a wide-spread tendency of New-Testament scholars to date Bible manuscripts solely on the basis of their handwriting to slots of typically 50 years (e.g., "first half of the 2nd century CE"...


2

In ancient Hebrew thought man is composed of two physical elements: dirt breath The making of man into these two elements is graphically described by Moses: Gen 2:7 then the LORD God formed the man of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living creature. In other words, YHVH scooped up ...


1

It is interesting that so many people think that Ezekiel 28:13 refers to Satan. The One Year Bible Companion says great care must be taken to read this passage with discernment. It says it is clear that Ezekiel describes this king in terms that could not apply to a mere man. Ezekiel may therefore have been condemning not only the king of Tyre, but Satan, who ...


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Was the LXX used in Palestine in the First Century? Yes. The Septuagint was used in Palestine in the 1st century. "The Jews made use of it [i.e the LXX] long before the Christian Era, and in the time of Christ it was recognised as a legitimate text, and was employed in Palestine even by the rabbis." (New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia).


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For the old testament, the Septuagint was used over the Masoretic test, where the reading found in it supported traditional Christian doctrine, more so than the reading found in the Masoretic text i.e. Psalm 22:16 "they pierced my hands and my feet." To answer the second part of your question, the Septuagint predates the new testament, so it contains the ...


1

The Hebrew is "וְאָזְנֶ֙יךָ֙ תִּשְׁמַ֣עְנָה דָבָ֔ר מֵֽאַחֲרֶ֖יךָ" – "your ears will hear a thing/word from behind you". The Hebrew does not detail who is speaking in ones ear; while many traditional commentaries understand the speaker in ones ear to be God or His messengers (see Rashi, Radak), it is still possible to understand the speaker to be a trickster ...


1

You are absolutely right to say that the translator of the the Pentateuch was rather conservative in his translation, often when it differs it can be found to be following a text similar to the Samaritan Pentateuch. In this instance the translator saw the same word that we have in the MT. Moreover I do not think this is an attempt to obscure the problem of ...



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