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9

It would be difficult to give a 100% definitive answer unless there is some commentary by the translation committee on this (which I have not found, but may exist). The following is offered as reasonable conclusions from other evidence. Variation It is deemed by some that good writing avoids an abundance of repetition in word usage. For example, this page ...


8

Short Answer: Yes, they would know what he meant The longer answer is that the letter to the church in Rome (1:7) was to a mixed group of Gentiles (1:13) and Jews (2:17). Most believe the church started from some of the Jews present at Peter's preaching during Pentecost, the "visitors from Rome" (Act 2:10; NKJV/ESV/NASB). Starting at 2:17, Paul begins more ...


8

Of the Possibility of the Middle Voice As you note, Wallace argues against κατηρτισμένα (katērtismena) being a "direct middle," being translated as "having prepared themselves." Let's examine the validity of his arguments first:1 ONE. "The direct middle is quite rare" (418) — which to some extent is an assertion both begging to be proved and ...


7

OLD TESTAMENT USAGE: The word "poiema" us used only twice in the New Testament, as you say. But in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the same word is used several times: 1Sam. 8:8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt, even to this day—with which they have forsaken Me and served other ...


7

What Promise is this? There is none in these words. So write Sanday and Headlam (A critical and exegetical commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, 5th edn (ICC; T & T Clark, 1902), p. 111). They don't go on to explain much, and here James Denney (notable Scottish theologian) does a better job in the Expositor's Greek Testament (Hodder & ...


6

The explanation is not contradictory. First we see how Paul expands the meaning of Habakkuk 2:4 in the relevant verse here in Romans - Romans 1:17 (GNT) δικαιοσύνη γὰρ θεοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ ἀποκαλύπτεται ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν, καθὼς γέγραπται, Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται. The key in this verse is that we live "from faith to faith" (ἐκ πίστεως εἰς ...


6

Not ambiguous, but inclusive in meaning Ambiguity implies two or more possible meanings that are unclear as to which it is, or more broadly simply being unclear. I do not believe that is the situation here at all. Examining the statements Let's start with the basically undisputed OT reference Paul is using in Romans. Habakkuk 2:4 The (very literal) ...


4

THE ONE WHO IS SPEAKING It seems so clear to me that the one who is speaking in Romans 7:14-25 is not only a mature Christian but an apostle at that. However, I believe the apostle is speaking in this section about himself as he is naturally (i.e. 'in the flesh' vs.14; 18) and not about his identity in Christ - the 'new man' (Eph 2:24), made alive through ...


4

May Viably Be Construed as Either Middle or Passive Voice Your observation about the grammar of the verb compared to the English translations is very astute. Unfortunately, I do not think grammar itself will entirely answer this question. And context fits either option as being viable as well. If Passive, then in a Sense, All Three of Your Ideas are ...


4

The modern translation seems best. The best theory I have heard is that the reason for the corruption (some manuscripts have incorrectly added the doxology statement in verse 24) is that this was a incomplete repair of a larger corruption attempting to remove the original doxology. According to ancient debates over some differences in manuscripts, ...


4

This web site has a couple of interesting interpretations, one of which I had heard previously. They quote Kenneth Samuel Wuest (1893-1962): “In Bible times an oriental needed to keep his hearth fire going all the time in order to insure fire for cooking and warmth. If it went out, he had to go to a neighbour for some live coals of fire. These ...


4

I have been looking at this same verse the past few days. There are three important questions in my opinion for understanding this verse: (1) what is the subject of συνεργεῖ, (2) what is the syntax of the dative τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν τὸν θεὸν, and (3) what is the syntax of πάντα? The evidence indicates to me that the subject of the verb συνεργεῖ is the Holy Spirit ...


4

Great question. The short answer is that there is nothing explicit in the text of Scripture that proves without question that Paul reached Spain, but there is some evidence (both in and out of Scripture) which suggests that he did (at least to some scholars.) A couple of sources which you might find helpful are Homer A. Kent, The Pastoral Epistles, (Moody ...


3

Psalm 51:4 (v.6 in Hebrew) In BHS1 v.4 is v.6, and the construction in Hebrew is an infinitive construct with both a prepositional prefix and a 2nd person singular pronominal suffix attached (בְשָׁפְטֶֽךָ). The pronominal suffix can be used on an infinitive construct as either a subject or object of the verb.2 That means there is flexibility in the ...


3

It is helpful to understand the purpose(s) of the Mosaic Law. Quickly: It was intended to point people to their need for a Savior (Gal 3:19; Rom 5:20). It was intended to highlight their sinful nature (Rom 7:7). It taught many aspects of God and peoples' relationship to him. For examples, the sacrificial system was a reminder of humanity's need for a ...


2

The answer lies in the understanding of the word "Kosmos", which in English is translated "world", yet has a variety of meanings in the Greek. I am not a linguist, but after searching, found this exposition by A.W. Pink: It may appear to some of our readers that the exposition we have given of John 3:16 in the chapter on "Difficulties and Objections" ...


2

Psalm 140:9-11 provides one possible answer, since there appears the same parallel of coals falling upon the head. Most English translations group verses 9-11 as one paragraph; the LXX and Masoretic Text (MT) group the entire psalm as one unit. Psalm 140:9-11 (NASB) 9 As for the head of those who surround me, May the mischief of their lips cover ...


2

The language used in Rom 12:1 is symbolic of temple and alter related service by priests but not in the way you think. Paul never intended to require christians to imitate the ultimate sacrifice of Jesus by hoping that their good manners in the flesh would be a pleasing sacrifice to God for it is written "In our flesh dwelleth no good thing." Rather, ...


2

For what it's worth, my observation of the context is that the debt is derived from his call to preach the gospel (see verses 11-13 & verses 15-17) to the groups listed. Particularly note in verse 1 how Paul views himself as a servant of Christ (some versions 'bondservant'). His debt was primarily to Christ who had purchased the apostle's life with the ...


2

Fantastic question! Although I don't have time to craft a thorough answer, I'd like to offer some observations. (Note: I am narrowing my discussion to the two principal alternatives you suggested: possessive or subjective genitive -- i.e., God's righteousness, or believers'.) First, I would suggest that Paul's own commentary on this particular phrase is ...


2

It appears that the ESV et. al. are adding the word conflicting from how they see the thoughts acting. The notes on the NET Bible read : tn Grk "their conscience bearing witness and between the thoughts accusing or also defending one another." The NET also adds conflicting in its translation. ...their conscience bears witness and their conflicting ...


2

The context indicates that the people are still judged -- thus, some transgression must still be "charged" or "accounted" to them. Look and the verse after it: Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses [since death happened, there must be sin and transgression], even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam [Adam sinned against a specific ...


2

This is an instant where the Greek doesn't capture it's original sense in the Hebrew. In Hebrew 'kabod'(glory) originally meant 'weight'. We see this illustrated in 2 Chron. 5:14, So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God. In Ex. 33:22, the Lord says to Moses, ...


2

The sources that Liddell and Scott cite for meanings other than 'glory' are all much older than the NT: Homer (7-8th century BC) Aeschylus (5th century BC) Euripides 5th century BC) Herodotus (5th century BC) Pindar (5th century BC) Demosthenes (4th century BC) Plato (4th century BC) Thucydides (4th century BC) Xenophon (4th century BC) Liddell and Scott ...


1

Contrary to the fairly normative *mis*interpretation in much of Protestantism, all Paul is saying is that if you don't have absolute faith that the act you are about to perform is right, then it is sin to do it. This has zero reference to the idea that everything a non-believer does is a sin even when its morally good. That's not what Paul is talking about ...


1

Throughout his work Paul is redefining some metaphysical terms. "Faith" is perhaps one of the best examples of this. It is a key element of his teaching in the book of Romans. He introduces faith in chapter 1:1-17. He picks it up again in 3:21-5:2 then refers back to his expositions on faith throughout the rest of the book. So faith is a key term for Paul ...


1

There is no conflict here as the ESV might appear to suggest. Most translations, however, render this verse very sensibly (e.g. NIV has "They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them"). The New Living Translation ...


1

The Greek word is καταργέω, which means to destroy, nullify, or render impotent. The word occurs 26 times in Christian New Testament: please click here to view each respective context, usage, and translation; and three times in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, which is the Septuagint: please click here to view each respective context, usage, and ...


1

This is another ancient debate but both Catholics and Protestants tend to favor the 'we have' peace translation. Even though Catholics do not believe in an imputed righteousness as Protestants do, they do believe that when a person is in a state of grace then they are righteous and do 'have peace'. (Catholics believe in a righteousness produced by internal ...



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