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8

Short Answer: Yes, they would know what he meant The longer answer is that the letter to the church in Rome (1:7) was to a mixed group of Gentiles (1:13) and Jews (2:17). Most believe the church started from some of the Jews present at Peter's preaching during Pentecost, the "visitors from Rome" (Act 2:10; NKJV/ESV/NASB). Starting at 2:17, Paul begins more ...


8

Of the Possibility of the Middle Voice As you note, Wallace argues against κατηρτισμένα (katērtismena) being a "direct middle," being translated as "having prepared themselves." Let's examine the validity of his arguments first:1 ONE. "The direct middle is quite rare" (418) — which to some extent is an assertion both begging to be proved and ...


7

ὁ κηρύσσων μὴ κλέπτειν κλέπτεις; He who preaches to not steal, do you steal? ὁ λέγων μὴ μοιχεύειν μοιχεύεις; He who says to not commit adultery, do you commit adultery? ὁ βδελυσσόμενος τὰ εἴδωλα ἱεροσυλεῖς; He who abhors idols, do you [X]? As you mentioned, there is a clear opposition between the former clause and the latter clause ...


6

The question of how "adoption" as used metaphorically by Paul relates to modern notions of adoption is not as important as comparing it to other ancient understandings. Once this is in place, however, the further comparison of the concept from Roman antiquity with modernity (in industrialized West, by implication?) can benefit from those findings. The Texts ...


6

This verse happens to appear in the portion of Scripture that is a key part of my dissertation. This is all my own work (and thinking through Romanides's examples helped solidify further my own take on the verse that I had previously come to). Romanides's Errors Romanides makes some errors in his argument that should be exposed. Your quote from him was as ...


5

First let's do a quick exercise: Forget all the discussion and simply read this without the missing word: For their women exchanged ______ relations for those that are contrary to nature; v27 and the men likewise gave up ______ relations with women and were consumed with passion for one another. If you read it without the term "natural" you still ...


4

It is helpful to understand the purpose(s) of the Mosaic Law. Quickly: It was intended to point people to their need for a Savior (Gal 3:19; Rom 5:20). It was intended to highlight their sinful nature (Rom 7:7). It taught many aspects of God and peoples' relationship to him. For examples, the sacrificial system was a reminder of humanity's need for a ...


4

Great question. The short answer is that there is nothing explicit in the text of Scripture that proves without question that Paul reached Spain, but there is some evidence (both in and out of Scripture) which suggests that he did (at least to some scholars.) A couple of sources which you might find helpful are Homer A. Kent, The Pastoral Epistles, (Moody ...


4

THE ONE WHO IS SPEAKING It seems so clear to me that the one who is speaking in Romans 7:14-25 is not only a mature Christian but an apostle at that. However, I believe the apostle is speaking in this section about himself as he is naturally (i.e. 'in the flesh' vs.14; 18) and not about his identity in Christ - the 'new man' (Eph 2:24), made alive through ...


4

The modern translation seems best. The best theory I have heard is that the reason for the corruption (some manuscripts have incorrectly added the doxology statement in verse 24) is that this was a incomplete repair of a larger corruption attempting to remove the original doxology. According to ancient debates over some differences in manuscripts, ...


4

This, from the New Bible Commentary, 2nd Edition (1954), on Mark 14:36: "Abba (36) is Aramaic for 'Father.' The addition of Pater (Father) is probably not a translation by Mark. Some think the two words together are a very early liturgical formula of address in prayer. But it is more likely that they reflect a natural prayer habit of Jesus Himself, which ...


4

May Viably Be Construed as Either Middle or Passive Voice Your observation about the grammar of the verb compared to the English translations is very astute. Unfortunately, I do not think grammar itself will entirely answer this question. And context fits either option as being viable as well. If Passive, then in a Sense, All Three of Your Ideas are ...


4

I have been looking at this same verse the past few days. There are three important questions in my opinion for understanding this verse: (1) what is the subject of συνεργεῖ, (2) what is the syntax of the dative τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν τὸν θεὸν, and (3) what is the syntax of πάντα? The evidence indicates to me that the subject of the verb συνεργεῖ is the Holy Spirit ...


3

Psalm 51:4 (v.6 in Hebrew) In BHS1 v.4 is v.6, and the construction in Hebrew is an infinitive construct with both a prepositional prefix and a 2nd person singular pronominal suffix attached (בְשָׁפְטֶֽךָ). The pronominal suffix can be used on an infinitive construct as either a subject or object of the verb.2 That means there is flexibility in the ...


3

Well, there is some ambiguity around the meaning of the phrase τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῶν ἁγίων, although the correct choice appears to be mostly a settled issue among modern translations and commentaries. To define our terms: τοὺς πτωχοὺς = the poor = head noun τῶν ἁγίων = the saints = genitive (in the genitive case as a reflection of its relationship with τοὺς ...


3

Apparently the Theory is not from Analysis of Pre-Extant Texts If C. Marvin Pate is correct in his Romans commentary statements (no page numbers shown in that Google Book link, but it is under the section where he discusses those verses in the commentary), then the two main reasons this becomes a question at all for this passage has nothing to do with any ...


3

The heart of the problem is that the earliest manuscripts-the uncials and papyri don't have punctuation. There has got to be a comma and or period in there, but where? Murray Harris in his study of this question found that, of the 56 commentaries he consulted, 36 felt the reference was to Christ, 13 felt it was a reference to God and 7 were unsure. Harris ...


3

The phrase is "ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν" which literally translates as 'inventors of bad/evil' and forms part of a larger catalogue of 21 vices that can be split into 3 groups as follows: a. one group of four vices (in the original each in the dat. s.), these four being introduced by the words “having become filled with every kind of”; b. one group of ...


2

The language used in Rom 12:1 is symbolic of temple and alter related service by priests but not in the way you think. Paul never intended to require christians to imitate the ultimate sacrifice of Jesus by hoping that their good manners in the flesh would be a pleasing sacrifice to God for it is written "In our flesh dwelleth no good thing." Rather, ...


2

Psalm 140:9-11 provides one possible answer, since there appears the same parallel of coals falling upon the head. Most English translations group verses 9-11 as one paragraph; the LXX and Masoretic Text (MT) group the entire psalm as one unit. Psalm 140:9-11 (NASB) 9 As for the head of those who surround me, May the mischief of their lips cover ...


2

This is an instant where the Greek doesn't capture it's original sense in the Hebrew. In Hebrew 'kabod'(glory) originally meant 'weight'. We see this illustrated in 2 Chron. 5:14, So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God. In Ex. 33:22, the Lord says to Moses, ...


2

The context indicates that the people are still judged -- thus, some transgression must still be "charged" or "accounted" to them. Look and the verse after it: Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses [since death happened, there must be sin and transgression], even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam [Adam sinned against a specific ...


2

Fantastic question! Although I don't have time to craft a thorough answer, I'd like to offer some observations. (Note: I am narrowing my discussion to the two principal alternatives you suggested: possessive or subjective genitive -- i.e., God's righteousness, or believers'.) First, I would suggest that Paul's own commentary on this particular phrase is ...


2

It appears that the ESV et. al. are adding the word conflicting from how they see the thoughts acting. The notes on the NET Bible read : tn Grk "their conscience bearing witness and between the thoughts accusing or also defending one another." The NET also adds conflicting in its translation. ...their conscience bears witness and their conflicting ...


2

The sources that Liddell and Scott cite for meanings other than 'glory' are all much older than the NT: Homer (7-8th century BC) Aeschylus (5th century BC) Euripides 5th century BC) Herodotus (5th century BC) Pindar (5th century BC) Demosthenes (4th century BC) Plato (4th century BC) Thucydides (4th century BC) Xenophon (4th century BC) Liddell and Scott ...


1

In Romans 1:16, Paul says, "For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.” (Romans 1:16) This latter phrase is repeated in the immediate context of Rom 2:12 as well, "There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and ...


1

In Romans 1-3, Paul teaches the Gentiles without the law of Moses were guilty of sin before God and the Jews who were under the law of Moses were also guilty of sin before God concluding that all have sinned. Contextually Romans 3:28 refers to the law of Moses. Today we a justified by a system of faith that is separate from the works of the law of Moses. In ...


1

There is no conflict here as the ESV might appear to suggest. Most translations, however, render this verse very sensibly (e.g. NIV has "They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them"). The New Living Translation ...


1

Israel was carried "On Eagles Wings" as she was led from Egypt, to Sinai where God visibly appeared to her and made an Everlasting Covenant with her; making her a chosen people unto Himself, and a great nation, which would strike terror and dread amongst her enemies, and be a sign to all the nations of the earth that God was with them. He sanctified her, and ...



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