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10

Jesus is quoting a version of Psalm 8 that corresponds to the Septuagint (Greek translation), which does contain significant variations from the Masoretic (Hebrew version). The Masoretic is used for most versions of the Christian Old Testament in English. The Septuagint was completed roughly two centuries before Jesus did his teaching. Psalm 8.31 εκ ...


9

Interesting - the relevant bit of Psalm 23:4 is: גַּם כִּי־אֵלֵךְ בְּגֵיא צַלְמָוֶת gam kî-ʾēlēk bĕgêʾ ṣalmāwet As Briggs & Briggs translate, "Yea, when I walk in a gloomy ravine..." The preposition bĕ- has its basic meaning as "in" (in Brown-Driver-Briggs, and Driver did the "bĕ-" entry). The meaning "through" isn't listed, although it is by ...


8

The question is really an issue of what kind of cosmology the authors of the various biblical books assume in the course of their writing. When we read the Hebrew scriptures, the few books that have anything to say on the subject never explicitly say 'the earth is flat'. But if we can determine the overall shape of the cosmos as the different writers ...


7

My sense is that the answer is "Yes" -- it's a metaphor for a "real place", whatever that "place" might be. Psalm 23 has a series of shifting metaphors, but in the opening verses the governing concept is that of the LORD as "shepherd", so that the "green pastures", "still waters", and "right paths" of vv. 2-3 are all metaphorical places, of nourishing, of ...


6

A supplement to Mark Edward's answer: Though "strength" and "praise" are two very different words, the "strength" in Ps 8 in the Hebrew text comes from "mouths", and the psalm is about praising God. It is not a stretch to think that the psalm talks about praise from the infants' mouths. Moreover, the New Testament seldom quotes the Old Testament word for ...


6

Is Matthew 5.5 in the same line of thought? To start, we should double check that Matthew 5.5 is relevant to interpreting any texts from the Hebrew scriptures ('Old Testament'). We want to be careful not to group it with those texts if they're not even using the same language. A simple way to verify this is to compare Matthew 5.5 with the Greek translation ...


5

In Psa. 100:1, the psalmist commands, "All the earth, shout to Yahveh!" Hence, the subject is "all the earth" (כָּל הָאָרֶץ) (cp. Psa. 33:8, 66:4, 96:1, 96:9, etc.). To the same subject, "all the earth," the psalmist commands (Psa. 100:2), "Serve Yahveh with gladness!" (עִבְדוּ אֶת יַהְוֶה בְּשִׂמְחָה) and "Come in His presence with exultation!" (בֹּאוּ ...


5

First off -- what an amazing psalm! I think it's important never to forget the greatness of the literature we're digging into when we (rightly!) ask our carefully focussed and technical questions. When we've arrived at our answer (if we can), our appreciation ought to be enhanced and deepened. And sorry: I meant this to be a quick one. Three questions ...


5

The Septuagint, a Greek translation of the most significant Hebrew scriptures, completed by 100 BC at the latest, chose to translate 'elohim as αγγελους (that is, 'angels') in Psalm 8.5 (actually verse number 8.6 in the LXX). In the second half of the first century, the author of Hebrews cites the Septuagint translation exactly, reiterating the opinion that ...


4

The most obvious answer seems to be euphony. Write that clause in the masculine form - it doesn't ring smoothly as all, and sounds to my ear less balanced in its lacking of syllables. You're reading a verse from Psalms - it's a poem, euphony is a crucial element. These weren't verses studied in Bible school, they were songs sung by artists. The word אור is ...


4

"Asher" is used with past-tense hence making it past-tensive. "Ahavti" with "kametz" alef and hey properly means past-tense as well. However, it can be used as ongoing past-tense which applies in the present which as you pointed out its the easiest understandable meaning. Now "וְאֶשְׁתַּֽעֲשַׁ֥ע" is past and present tense (ongoing past-tense almost like ...


4

The scriptures offer no specific definition, although we can infer one from Exodus 22:22-24: "You shall not afflict any widow [יתום] or orphan. If you afflict him at all, and if he does cry out to me, I will surely hear his cry; and My anger will be kindled, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall become widows and your children ...


4

This is the same phrase that appears in Ex 34:6, the interaction between God and Moshe after the golden calf. In both places אֶ֖רֶךְ אַפַּ֣יִם is sometimes translated "slow to anger" (though there is no infinitive verb there) and sometimes "long-suffering". אֶ֖רֶךְ is Strong's H750, "prolong, lengthen, draw out" (etc). אַפַּ֣יִם is H639. The lexicon ...


4

While Matthew 5:5 echoes Psalm 37:11, it's not obvious that they have the same horizons, so I will take them one at a time and then offer a summary. Psalm 37:11 A canonical reading of Psalm 37:11 places the verse in the context of a number of Psalms about David (essentially 3-41). Psalm 37 itself is marked as "Of David" indicating that the primary referent ...


4

A helpful previous answer (n.b.: literature cited there is not repeated in this answer) hints at some of the complexities of this interesting question. Answering it definitively is complicated by our lack of "Edomite" sources and limited archaeological evidence. (And n.b.: the answer that follows is not "definitive"!) Although there is some evidence from the ...


4

When Ezekiel was written The book of Ezekiel consists of thirteen sections, each dated by the number of years since 'the exile of Jehoiachin' (597 BC), beginning in the fifth year. The total span of time for Ezekiel's recorded prophecies was about twenty-two years (c. 592-570). Features of Psalm 137 This Psalm doesn't tell us exactly when it was ...


4

The psalm appears to me to be talking about the king of Israel.1 While God is mentioned throughout Psalm 110, it is as the one who empowers Israel's king, who is the central figure of the song: God installs the 'lord' (the king of Israel) at the right hand of his (God's) throne (verse 1) God enables the rule of the king from Jerusalem even in the face of ...


3

As a matter of semantics, the Hebrew word עלם ('olam) means something more like the English words 'age' or 'era', in the sense of a distant time period. עלם is occasionally translated as 'everlasting' or 'eternal', with a meaning of 'age-enduring'. For example, some passages describe hills or mountains as עלם (Genesis 49.26; Deuteronomy 33.15; Habakkuk ...


3

Consider one of the sayings I grew up with: "He who laughs last, laughs best!" More on that later. Theologians speak of anthropomorphisms, and rightly they should. God the Father does not have body parts, for one thing; He can, however, see and hear. "He who planted the ear, does He not hear? He who formed the eye, does He not see?" (Psalm ...


3

Exegesis Gesenius1 and Adam Clarke2 interpreted the phrase שִׁיר יְדִידֹת (shir yediot) in Psa. 45:1 as signifying an epithalamium.3 In this epithalamium, the psalmist writes about a bride and a bridegroom; therefore, the object of the psalmist's epithalamium changes a few times throughout the chapter. First, the psalmist writes concerning the king, i.e. ...


3

It seems likely that Ps 72:20, "The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended", refers to the completion of an early collection of Davidic psalms. The evidence does not really fit together seamlessly, but still converges on this conclusion. The text reads: כָּלּוּ תְפִלּוֹת דָּוִד בֶּן־יִשָׁי kālû tĕphillôt dāwīd ben yišāy1 (1) Ps 72:20 follows a ...


3

I realize this is based on the 'opinion' of the 'Sages' from 'Rashi's commentary, but I found it interesting and thought I would share it with you. More interesting as I was just reading this Q & A, and then 'stumbled' upon the next website as I am researching Psalm 23 for myself. from: ...


3

There are a few opinions in the literature (see Fassberg's paper on the lengthened imperative which has a huge number of excellent references). A summary of the opinions presented looks more or less as follows: None Emphasis (paralleled to the Arabic), similar to the cohortitive meaning Emphasis originally, although the distinction became more stylistic ...


3

We need to explore the word אף more closely. It has two general meanings: nose, face, nostril (Genesis 2:7, Proverbs 30:33, Genesis 28:12, Samuel I 25:23, Chronicles II 7:3) and anger (Deuteronomy 29:27, Proverbs 30:33, Daniel 11:20, Zephaniah 2:2, Genesis 30:2). Why this is the case is left to your interpretation. On this point I agree with this answer - ...


3

Biblical Hebrew doesn't have tense, it has aspect. English doesn't have aspect, it has tense. So, translators are in a pickle. The 'perfect' aspect (exemplified by אָהָֽבְתִּי) is about completion, not point-in-time. However, this is poetry. In poetic BH poetry, just about every rule gets bent sooner or later in favor 'what it sounds like'. So translators ...


3

Yes the custom of raising the right hand was a customary gesture of a person taking an oath, implying that he appeals to God as a witness to the truth of his affirmation. From man to God: But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “With raised hand I have sworn an oath to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth, that I will accept nothing ...


3

The Tanakh (the Old Testament) is replete with prophecies concerning the Messiah. Beginning with Genesis 3:15, also called the protoevangelium, there are hints, allusions, and explicit references to the identity, the roles, and the work of the promised Messiah. Jesus explained (likely) every one of them in His conversation with Cleopas and an unnamed ...


3

The כִי- (-kî) 2nd fem sg suffix (which appears also in vv. 3 and 5) is explained as simply a rare (or possibly Aramaizing) form of the suffix: see Gesenius Kautzsch Cowley, §58g (for the verb) and §91e for the noun. Basically the same explanation is given in Joüon-Muraoka, at §61i (verb), and §94i (noun). See also p. 269 of Geoffrey Khan's discussion of ...



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