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10

Interesting - the relevant bit of Psalm 23:4 is: גַּם כִּי־אֵלֵךְ בְּגֵיא צַלְמָוֶת gam kî-ʾēlēk bĕgêʾ ṣalmāwet As Briggs & Briggs translate, "Yea, when I walk in a gloomy ravine..." The preposition bĕ- has its basic meaning as "in" (in Brown-Driver-Briggs, and Driver did the "bĕ-" entry). The meaning "through" isn't listed, although it is by ...


9

The question is really an issue of what kind of cosmology the authors of the various biblical books assume in the course of their writing. When we read the Hebrew scriptures, the few books that have anything to say on the subject never explicitly say 'the earth is flat'. But if we can determine the overall shape of the cosmos as the different writers ...


7

Is Matthew 5.5 in the same line of thought? To start, we should double check that Matthew 5.5 is relevant to interpreting any texts from the Hebrew scriptures ('Old Testament'). We want to be careful not to group it with those texts if they're not even using the same language. A simple way to verify this is to compare Matthew 5.5 with the Greek translation ...


6

My sense is that the answer is "Yes" -- it's a metaphor for a "real place", whatever that "place" might be. Psalm 23 has a series of shifting metaphors, but in the opening verses the governing concept is that of the LORD as "shepherd", so that the "green pastures", "still waters", and "right paths" of vv. 2-3 are all metaphorical places, of nourishing, of ...


5

The Septuagint, a Greek translation of the most significant Hebrew scriptures, completed by 100 BC at the latest, chose to translate 'elohim as αγγελους (that is, 'angels') in Psalm 8.5 (actually verse number 8.6 in the LXX). In the second half of the first century, the author of Hebrews cites the Septuagint translation exactly, reiterating the opinion that ...


5

When Ezekiel was written The book of Ezekiel consists of thirteen sections, each dated by the number of years since 'the exile of Jehoiachin' (597 BC), beginning in the fifth year. The total span of time for Ezekiel's recorded prophecies was about twenty-two years (c. 592-570). Features of Psalm 137 This Psalm doesn't tell us exactly when it was ...


5

The Tanakh (the Old Testament) is replete with prophecies concerning the Messiah. Beginning with Genesis 3:15, also called the protoevangelium, there are hints, allusions, and explicit references to the identity, the roles, and the work of the promised Messiah. Jesus explained (likely) every one of them in His conversation with Cleopas and an unnamed ...


5

First off -- what an amazing psalm! I think it's important never to forget the greatness of the literature we're digging into when we (rightly!) ask our carefully focussed and technical questions. When we've arrived at our answer (if we can), our appreciation ought to be enhanced and deepened. And sorry: I meant this to be a quick one. Three questions ...


4

While Matthew 5:5 echoes Psalm 37:11, it's not obvious that they have the same horizons, so I will take them one at a time and then offer a summary. Psalm 37:11 A canonical reading of Psalm 37:11 places the verse in the context of a number of Psalms about David (essentially 3-41). Psalm 37 itself is marked as "Of David" indicating that the primary referent ...


4

It seems likely that Ps 72:20, "The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended", refers to the completion of an early collection of Davidic psalms. The evidence does not really fit together seamlessly, but still converges on this conclusion. The text reads: כָּלּוּ תְפִלּוֹת דָּוִד בֶּן־יִשָׁי kālû tĕphillôt dāwīd ben yišāy1 (1) Ps 72:20 follows a ...


4

A helpful previous answer (n.b.: literature cited there is not repeated in this answer) hints at some of the complexities of this interesting question. Answering it definitively is complicated by our lack of "Edomite" sources and limited archaeological evidence. (And n.b.: the answer that follows is not "definitive"!) Although there is some evidence from the ...


4

The psalm appears to me to be talking about the king of Israel.1 While God is mentioned throughout Psalm 110, it is as the one who empowers Israel's king, who is the central figure of the song: God installs the 'lord' (the king of Israel) at the right hand of his (God's) throne (verse 1) God enables the rule of the king from Jerusalem even in the face of ...


4

Gesenius lexicon for Strong's 3050 has a slightly expanded explanation. There either יַהֲַוֹה or יַהְַוֶה is allowed to be an earlier pronounciation of YHWH, and the form Yah is explained by apocope to יָהוּ and then by omission of the unaccented וּ to the final יָהּ. As a further evidence, Gesenius points that "these forms are used promiscuously" (sic) at ...


4

Mark S. Smith says, in 'Taking Inspiration', published in Psalms and Practice, page 262, that Psalm 2 may be viewed as a psalm of instruction [for the king of Judah]. Gerald H. Wilson goes further in 'Songs for the City' (ibid, page 236) and says that in Psalm 2, God is described as defining the proper role for the righteous ruler. Extrapolating from these ...


3

One argument that has been made is that the care for the righteous, i.e. the preservation of a man's (David's) bones in suffering, imagery is joined up with the passover theme. In the passover they were not to break any bones of the sacrificial Lamb. 46 “It must be eaten inside the house; take none of the meat outside the house. Do not break any of the ...


3

The verse appears in the Masoretic Text and LXX as follows, respectively - Psalm 19:3 (MT) 3 אֵֽין־אֹמֶר וְאֵין דְּבָרִים בְּלִי נִשְׁמָע קֹולָֽם׃ The literal translation - There is no speech and there are no words: their voice is not heard. Psalm 19:1-3 (LXX) 3 οὐκ εἰσὶν λαλιαὶ οὐδὲ λόγοι ὧν οὐχὶ ἀκούονται αἱ φωναὶ αὐτῶν ...


3

It seems to me that there are two interconnected problems raised by the formulation of the question. I think it would help to disentangle them: "meek" v. "humble" The question of contrasting "meek" and "humble" is bound up with changing English usage. "meek" tends to be somewhat quaint in usage, and certainly not so prevalent in English usage as it once ...


3

The כִי- (-kî) 2nd fem sg suffix (which appears also in vv. 3 and 5) is explained as simply a rare (or possibly Aramaizing) form of the suffix: see Gesenius Kautzsch Cowley, §58g (for the verb) and §91e for the noun. Basically the same explanation is given in Joüon-Muraoka, at §61i (verb), and §94i (noun). See also p. 269 of Geoffrey Khan's discussion of ...


3

The hypothesis of a link between the Five Books of the Psalmer and the Five Books of Moses is not a novel one. It dates back to even some of the earliest interpreters: The ancient rabbins saw in the Five Books of the Psalter the image of the Five Books of the Law. This way of looking on the Psalms as a second Pentateuch, the echo of the first, passed ...


3

Jewish authorities are split on this. As mentioned in his verse-by-verse lecture on this Psalm, my late rabbi, Rabbi Gedaliah Anemer, zt'l, offered both the view that: (1) this Psalm is about David himself, according to Rashi and the Redak, and the wicked nations are the Phillistines; and (2) this Psalm is a prophetic discussion where the king described is ...


2

I believe that the text indicates that David wrote it in a reflectory fashion. In the annotation, the noun "טַ֭עְמוֹ" "his behavior" is the key to this. This noun is also used in 1 Samuel 21:14. The interesting thing about this noun is that it can also mean "taste", e.g. "אִם־יֶשׁ־טַ֝֗עַם בְּרִ֣יר חַלָּמֽוּת׃" "or is there any taste in the white of an ...


2

This is a messianic vision, and David is primarily concerned here with Christ and his place with God, and his Priesthood Authority. I see the first part of your question as having two elements. Element 1, "The Lord says to My Lord" is a conversation between God The Father (Elohim) and Christ The Son (Jesus Christ). Element 2, it was necessary to ...


2

This is a case of ambiguity in the translation, as some of the explanatory words like "where" or "which" are not present in the Hebrew. Unfortunately it is very hard to put into English without making a judgment about the details. See http://biblehub.com/interlinear/psalms/19-3.htm to read an interlinear text and http://biblehub.com/psalms/19-3.htm to see a ...


1

Psalm 44 was written during the Babylonian Exile, at a time of despair for the Jews, but hope that God would rescue them. Verse 11 tells us that the Jews have been defeated and scattered among the heathens, which can only be a reference to the Exile: 44:11:Thou hast given us like sheep appointed for meat; and hast scattered us among the heathen. God ...


1

Both translations are suitable! But they indicate the original Hebrew has a deeper meaning than can be conveyed in one sentence of English. The two main issues here is the meaning of the word "lack" and how to best translate that from the imperfective. The details: The first verse contains four Hebrew words, two phrases of two words each. The first says ...


1

It refers to the things that shine in the night sky that are not the "lesser light" (the moon). So, the Hebrew "stars" would also include the wandering stars that we refer to as planets, as well as the distant suns that we label as stars proper. To the Hebrew, they were all "stars".


1

The Idea in Brief The Masoretic Text does not indicate here the appearance of the consecutive waw with the Hebrew verb יָשַׁב (to dwell) but instead the consecutive waw with the Hebrew verb שׁוּב (to return). This conclusion comes from the marginalia of the Masoretic Text, which is the Massorah Parva. Discussion The Masoretic Text of the verse appears as ...



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