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13

Interestingly, despite there being several good answers here, no one has yet raised the possibility that the word ראם (re'em) refers to an animal known as the aurochs or urus (Bos primigenius). (Edit: Bruce James' answer does say "the ראם is a type of cow", which would be consistent with the aurochs conclusion.) Around the turn of the twentieth century ...


9

While reading links to add to this question, I ran across Gesenius’ explanation (§129 c.), which seems to be too much of an answer to incorporate into the question. I therefore offer it as an answer, although I have a sense that it’s up for disputing, and I’d love to see other answers incorporating more recent scholarship. Gesenius labels this lamed ...


6

Psalm 23:5 You prepare a table before me... [OP]: Just what does this table represent? First, except in the most qualified sense, this is not what is in mind in Psalm 23:5 - The word "table" The Hebrew term for "table" is שֻׁלְחָן šulḥān (71× in the Hebrew Bible), still the common word in use in Israeli Hebrew. But in the world of ...


5

In Hebrew, the first "Lord" is Yahweh (God's name), and the second "Lord" really means Lord. So the text is "Yahweh said to my Lord." The way Peter uses the words in Acts 2:34 seems to indicate that the second Lord is the Messiah. This is also corroborated by Matthew 22:42-45.


4

Psalm 90 is unique in that it is the only psalm that has a superscription that identifies it as having been written by Moses. Mark S. Smith says in 'Taking Inspiration', published in Psalms and Practice (edited by Stephen Breck Reid), page 245, that the scholarly consensus is that the superscriptions we see on many of the psalms are prose additions to the ...


4

The Idea in Brief The Hebrew verb to pierce (כָּרָה = H3738) in Psalm 40:6 is the same triliteral root for the Hebrew verb to prepare (כָּרָה = H3739). For example, this second verb (כָּרָה = H3739) appears translated in 2 Ki 6:23 as "prepared." In other words, both verbs have the exact same triliteral root, but have different meanings. The LXX translators ...


4

It appears that the LXX translator (rather than the NETS translator) "saw" a different text here. Typically זד gets translated (as you would expect), with something reflecting "insolent" or nasty:1 παράνομος : Ps 86[85]:14; 119[118]:85 ὑπερήφανος : Ps 119[118]:21, 51, 69, 78, 122 θρασύς : Prov 21:24 ἄνομος : Isa 13:11 On three occasions, however, there ...


4

I believe that the idea of "a new song" has many implications: It is anti-ritualistic: When ritual is performed over and over again, it becomes an old song. Emphasizing that the psalm is a new one means that it is not ritual. It is pure glorification, pure praise directed towards God, not some old mechanical routine that worshipers perform for the sake of ...


4

The Masoretic Text provides clues as to how to read and understand this verse. First, the Masoretes provided a system of cantillation and accent marks, which had signaled to the listener (and reader) the Hebrew hierarchy of thought for every single verse of the Hebrew Bible. For example, the following parse provides the schematic understanding of how the ...


3

The answer is no, because there is no real evidence that King David wrote any of the psalms attributed to him. James Luther Mays says in Psalms, page 9, that the personal identities of the authors of the Psalms are unknown. He says the quest for the origin of individual psalms leads to occasions in Israel's public exercise of religion, not to their authors. ...


2

I would argue that "through" as it appears in Psalm 23:4 does not include "coming out of" as its primary meaning. The theme of Psalm 23 is about trusting in G-d during adversity, but not necessarily after it. The majority of the psalm is set in the imperfect tense, which implies incomplete actions happening in the present, or actions which will occur at ...


2

There has been much argument as to whether the relevant word is correctly translated as 'lion' or 'pierced', because the Hebrew words (transliterated as kaari and kaaru) are almost indistinguishable. Both Christian and Jewish scholars have concluded that translating the passage with 'lion' (kaari) is meaningless and kaari is not supported by the earliest ...


2

In Mark 12:35-37, Jesus has not yet declared himself to be the Messiah, in fact he never really does in this gospel. The important thing is that the audience of Mark's Gospel has already been told that Jesus is the Messiah, or Christ. So, when Jesus talks about the Messiah, the audience knows that he is talking about himself, but the scribe does not. The ...


2

The Targum Psalms provides some clues. The Targums were amplified translations of the Hebrew Scriptures into Aramaic. That is, they provide some nuance as to how the Hebrew Scriptures were understood by Jewish scholars who translated the texts from Biblical Hebrew into Aramaic. The Targum Psalms is Late Jewish Literary Aramaic, and therefore appeared as ...


2

The fulfilment of Psalm 69:21 in John 19:28-29 Properly speaking John 19:28 and the 'I thirst' statement of John 19:28 is linked to Ps 69:3 which says: "I am weary with my crying; My throat is dry; My eyes fail while I wait for my God." it is John 19:29 that could be linked to Ps 69:21, the commentator notes: The connection of the Markan Death Story, ...


2

Disclaimer: I am not a guru on Hebrew Poetry. Parsing Psa 19:3(4) Psa 19:3(4) אֵֽין־אֹ֭מֶר וְאֵ֣ין דְּבָרִ֑ים בְּ֝לִ֗י נִשְׁמָ֥ע קוֹלָֽם׃ Psa. 19:4 אין־ Particle adverb nothing, is not אמר Noun common masculine singular speech ו Particle conjunction and אין Particle adverb ...


2

The Idea in Brief The Greek term ὠδίν appears to carry the idea of confinement, which results in anguish. For example, the pregnant woman is "trapped" in pain, and thus anguish. The city inhabitants are "trapped" by their attackers, and thus anguish. Jonah is "trapped" in Sheol, and thus anguish. The use of this term in the Christian New Testament therefore ...


2

There seems to be no consensus as to just when the superscripts were added to the psalms, other than that they were probably not all added at the same time, and that they were not always fixed but evolved, not being considered sacred in the way the psalm texts were. I looked up Mark S. Smith's paper, 'Taking Inspiration:Authorship, Revelation, and the Book ...


2

"This superscription is especially difficult, and many medievals struggle to understand the possible historical context of "over the death of the son, if that is the correct translation." (JPS Study Bible pp1291-2) While the exact meaning and translation is uncertain, the superscription can be used to explain the unusual structure of Psalms 9 and 10. ...


2

Short Answer: The Psalmist most definitely meant to convey Divine favor. A good, old-fashioned word study bears this out readily. (See below.) So, in light of your understanding of the connotations of the English words, "blessed" would definitely be the better rendering. I think the logic of other translators is simply that "blessed" is not as accessible to ...


2

The Lord tests the righteousness for sin, which he (the Lord) hates. That is, the wickedness of the righteous is in view according to Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki (Rashi). Please click the image below in order to enlarge. In this precise regard, the following graph depicts both the musical and logical division of phrases in the Masoretic Text. Please click the ...


1

The NASB reads: He made the moon for the seasons... (Psalm 104:19 NASB) Which is the better meaning of עָשָׂ֣ה. The moon was made for the לְמוֹעֲדִ֑ים or "moed," the appointed times. The meaning in the Psalm must be consistent with the account of creation: Then God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from ...


1

I don't think you can distinguish too much between the two; since the Jewish calendar is a lunar calendar, all "sacred seasons" are based on the lunar cycle. That being said, in the context of this psalm. it would seem to be merely speaking of how things are ordered in the sense of time keeping. The section from verses 19 through 30 seems to be related and ...


1

To answer your first question, yes the theory appears to be considered a valid possibility. Dictionary of the Old Testament (2008) argues for the idea. The Psalms of Lament in Mark's Passion (2007) and An Introduction to the Old Testament Poetic Books offer it as an alternative view in footnotes Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith? (2012) states "The ...


1

I find it difficult to understand why people would not read the Hebrew of the Bible at its face value: כי סבבוני כלבים for they turn-around me like dogs for they circumvent me like dogs עדת מרעים הקףוני gathering of companions they encircle me gathering of evil-doers they close-in on me כארי ידי ורגלי as lions of my hands and my feet as lights of my ...


1

Although my initial reaction to this question was (not unlike the response in another answer here) that obviously this day-of-the-week superscription (DWS) reflects the Jewish liturgical background of the translator, this conclusion depends on several assumptions: The phrase "τῆς μιᾶς σαββάτων" is original to the Old Greek translation of the Psalms ...


1

The question: What does the inclusion of τῆς μιᾶς σαββάτων in the LXX of Psa. 24:1 demonstrate about the religious identity of the translator(s) of Psa. 24:1 into the LXX? Forgive me if I'm oversimplifying, but doesn't the inclusion (or addition) of a phrase from the Hebrew Talmud logically suggest a Jewish religious identity? I don't see how it could ...


1

It is possible that Yah is not formed by the first two letters of YHWH, but by the first and last. Nehemiah Gordon proposes this theory to account for Yah, while disagreeing with the scholarly consensus regarding the pronunciation Yahweh. He states that in ancient Hebrew, contractions were commonly formed by taking the first and final letters. ...


1

In the original Hebrew we find the LORD (yud-hey-vahv-hey) says to my Lord (Adonee). The second lord, being in the singular, is referring to a human king or nobleman. In historical context it becomes clear that this psalm, written by David, was meant to be sung by the kohenim during temple liturgy. The kohenim would sing "The LORD says to my lord (king ...


1

You should note that when this verse says that those Scriptures are fulfilled, this does not necessarily mean that a prophecy was made and now carried out. Fulfillment is not always about prophecy. Sometimes fulfillment is about character being brought out again in its fullness. The same God who, in all of His goodness, cared for David as expressed in ...



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