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37

David Boswell is absolutely correct - animal names are consistently difficult to translate. The word under inspection is reim (Hebrew: ראם). The word also comes up in Numbers 23:22: God brought them out of Egypt; they have the strength of a wild ox. (NIV) Here are some commentaries. ...It is difficult to say what kind of beast is intended by the ...


17

First, to recap, Jesus had just made some pretty huge claims, culminating in the one you quoted in v30. They Jews were incensed by this, and about to stone him for blasphemy, when he went with the "not guilty" plea, and used this quote from Psalm 82 as his defense. His argument is this: If God himself (speaking through the Psalmist) can refer to another as ...


14

Interestingly, despite there being several good answers here, no one has yet raised the possibility that the word ראם (re'em) refers to an animal known as the aurochs or urus (Bos primigenius). (Edit: Bruce James' answer does say "the ראם is a type of cow", which would be consistent with the aurochs conclusion.) Around the turn of the twentieth century (i....


14

I am not really giving an answer here, but rather a clue that may help in finding the answer. I looked at the LXX (that includes English translation) for Psalms 22:21 and have noticed that, it too, uses the term "unicorn". The Greek word that is used in the LXX (Ps 21:21) is monokeros (μονόκερως). Using a Greek-English dictionary I learned that monokeros ...


13

This question was just asked over at the Judaism site, so I'll repost my answer from there here. In general it is difficult to find pre-Christian rabbinic commentary, since the earliest rabbinic commentaries began coalescing around the end of the Second Temple period, in the first century CE. So while early midrashic collections like the Sifra and Mekhilta ...


13

Interesting - the relevant bit of Psalm 23:4 is: גַּם כִּי־אֵלֵךְ בְּגֵיא צַלְמָוֶת gam kî-ʾēlēk bĕgêʾ ṣalmāwet As Briggs & Briggs translate, "Yea, when I walk in a gloomy ravine..." The preposition bĕ- has its basic meaning as "in" (in Brown-Driver-Briggs, and Driver did the "bĕ-" entry). The meaning "through" isn't listed, although it is by ...


11

Since the Book of Psalms was written in Hebrew, let's look at what Hebrew language and Bible scholars say on the subject. Specifically with regards to Psalm 22:21 (verse 22 in some Bibles), it says: "Save me from the lion's mouth; yea, from the horns of the רמים[plural version; pronounced "reymim"]." This is an animal that appears elsewhere in the ...


11

Not a Hyperbolic Expression The Text of Psalm 51:4: לְךָ לְבַדְּךָ ׀ חָטָאתִי וְהָרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ עָשִׂיתִי לְמַעַן תִּצְדַּק בְּדָבְרֶךָ תִּזְכֶּה בְשָׁפְטֶֽךָ׃ Explanation 1) "Against you alone" (לְךָ לְבַדְּךָ): This is a prayer of David for repentance (a penitential psalm), and while he sinned against many others in the affair with Bathsheba, ...


11

Is Matthew 5.5 in the same line of thought? To start, we should double check that Matthew 5.5 is relevant to interpreting any texts from the Hebrew scriptures ('Old Testament'). We want to be careful not to group it with those texts if they're not even using the same language. A simple way to verify this is to compare Matthew 5.5 with the Greek translation ...


10

Raca means "empty headed," very similar to how we use "fool" today. Jesus also uses moros in that verse, which is the root of moron. While we normally need to take care not to commit the root fallacy, this one does mean the same thing. The word used in Hebrew is nabal which has more to do with consistently making bad moral choices. Brown, Driver, Briggs ...


10

This is an attempt to give a brief theological answer, an answer that examines the words in their contexts and in their broader theological context, rather than a lexical investigation. The fool in Psalm 14/53 and in Proverbs is someone who is in moral antithesis to God. This is not an insult or a slur; it is an accurate description of the state of his mind,...


10

Jesus is quoting a version of Psalm 8 that corresponds to the Septuagint (Greek translation), which does contain significant variations from the Masoretic (Hebrew version). The Masoretic is used for most versions of the Christian Old Testament in English. The Septuagint was completed roughly two centuries before Jesus did his teaching. Psalm 8.31 εκ ...


9

I asked about this question at the Judaism.SE site and was told that it is difficult to find pre-Christian Rabbinic sources. It seems that the current understanding of Psalm 22 within Judaism deals with the plight of the Jewish Nation in Exile.1 However, Rashi's 11th-century commentary states that Our Sages, however, interpreted it [(ayeleth hashachar, ...


9

The first and most important clue is found in the annotation of the Psalm: For the Leader; upon Aijeleth ha-Shahar. A Psalm of David "Of David" can mean that it was written by, about, or in the style of David. Since the Psalm is written in the first person, any way you look at it, the subject must have originally been David. Nothing in the Psalm ...


9

This is proof-positive of Greek primacy of the Old Testament Here are the facts: 13 is an unlucky number. It is terribly unlucky to have a camel on your back. In the Septuagint, the Psalms are numbered differently (and correctly) so that the psalm in question is #12. 12 is a lucky number. 6 is half as lucky. 12:6 is one and a half lucky. In Greek, the ...


9

While reading links to add to this question, I ran across Gesenius’ explanation (§129 c.), which seems to be too much of an answer to incorporate into the question. I therefore offer it as an answer, although I have a sense that it’s up for disputing, and I’d love to see other answers incorporating more recent scholarship. Gesenius labels this lamed ...


8

It is true that all Jewish prayerbooks and scriptural resources exclude a "nun" line in Psalm 145. It is also true that the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Bible read by Greek-speaking Jews and Christians, the Peshitta – the translation used by the Syrian church, and one of the Dead Sea Scrolls’ Psalms texts, presumably used by members of the ...


8

Paul made a direct word-for-word quote not from Psalm 37:8, but from the Septuagint of Psalm 4:4 - ...ὀργίζεσθε καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε... In the Hebrew of Psalm 4:4, the verb for "anger" is רָגַז which has the connotation of perturbing, or being perturbed. In the 41 instances that this verb occurs in the Hebrew Bible in various conjugations and tenses, the ...


8

The question is really an issue of what kind of cosmology the authors of the various biblical books assume in the course of their writing. When we read the Hebrew scriptures, the few books that have anything to say on the subject never explicitly say 'the earth is flat'. But if we can determine the overall shape of the cosmos as the different writers ...


7

Per Strong's, the word itself means to lift up, exalt. However, when we see it used in Psalms (per the question), it's accepted that this is a musical term used to accentuate the passage, pause or show interruption. (Again, this is per Strong's.) Psalms 3:1-2 (NASB) 1 O LORD, how my adversaries have increased! Many are rising up against me. 2 ...


7

The first two thirds of Psalm 23 (from verses 1 to 4) is an extended metaphor comparing God to a shepherd and the Psalmist to His sheep. (The final two verses shift to banquet imagery.) Since the Psalm is attributed to David, the intention is to remind us of David's upbringing and early adulthood as a shepherd. According to Phillip Keller in A Shepherd ...


7

"yakar" is a word for which there isn't a good single-word English translation in this context. "yakar" is "dear" in the sense that "dear" is used in the UK to mean something costly or high priced. "Costly" in OT Hebrew as in English also has overtones of "regret" as in expressions such as "we paid a high price for that victory", or, "you paid too much for ...


7

hekal(הֵיכָל) means 'palace' or 'temple'. It is used to refer to the Solomon's Temple but also (for example) the house at Shiloh in David's time, here in 1 Samuel 1:9 After they had eaten and drunk in Shiloh, Hannah rose. Now Eli the priest was sitting on the seat beside the doorpost of the temple of the Lord. ESV Among other usages, it can also refer ...


7

It seems likely that Ps 72:20, "The prayers of David the son of Jesse are ended", refers to the completion of an early collection of Davidic psalms. The evidence does not really fit together seamlessly, but still converges on this conclusion. The text reads: כָּלּוּ תְפִלּוֹת דָּוִד בֶּן־יִשָׁי kālû tĕphillôt dāwīd ben yišāy1 (1) Ps 72:20 follows a "...


7

David E. Malick writes: This division seems to be older than the oldest extant manuscripts of the Psalms since it exists in all manuscripts. The order of the last two books (IV and V) do differ in some of the Dead Sea Scrolls suggesting that their final order was not canonized until around the time of Christ. But all of the Psalms remain present (The LXX ...


7

In Romans 3:4 Paul does the same kind of verb change. That is, he modifies the meaning of a verb from the Old Testament while quoting every other word verbatim from the Old Testament verses in question. So to use the example of Romans 3:4 we see that Paul is quoting from Psalm 51:4 saying, "...and prevail when you are judged." But the same verse in the ...


7

OK, moving this from a comment to an answer. Note about "tenses" in Biblical Hebrew. Technically speaking the idea of "zman 'avar"/'past tense' is Modern Hebrew. In Biblical Hebrew, you have aspects rather than tenses: perfect/imperfect. So [lo] halakh is in what's called the simple perfect[ive] aspect. The verbal system in Biblical Hebrew is somewhat ...


7

A good case can be made for the reading as a verb instead of a noun with a preposition prefixed. Regarding verse 16, Walter Kaiser (The Messiah in the Old Testament, footnote 10 pg. 115 and 116) lays out his argument for the verb by referencing the Vulgate, the Syriac, and the Septuagint, all of which have verbs. He takes the form ka'ari as the irregular ...


7

While Matthew 5:5 echoes Psalm 37:11, it's not obvious that they have the same horizons, so I will take them one at a time and then offer a summary. Psalm 37:11 A canonical reading of Psalm 37:11 places the verse in the context of a number of Psalms about David (essentially 3-41). Psalm 37 itself is marked as "Of David" indicating that the primary referent ...


7

The Greek translation of the Psalms, included in the Septuagint, chose to translate 'elohim as αγγελους ('angels') in Psalm 8.5 (LXX 8.6). In the second half of the first century, the new testament text Hebrews quotes the Septuagint translation of this verse exactly, reiterating the opinion that the 'elohim were understood as angels by at least some Jews ...



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