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14

Jesus Himself quoted non-biblical sources. He quoted (loosely, I presume) a popular, Farmer's Almanac-type saying when He said, "When it is evening, you say, 'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red.' And in the morning, 'There will be a storm today, for the sky is red and threatening.' Do you know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but ...


11

There are two possible reasons why 'they were signing' (ἐνένευον) to him in Luke 1:62: Zechariah was mute and deaf. While there is no indication that the angel Gabriel brought about anything other than muteness,1 v. 22 states that he remained κωφός, which in addition to referring to a "lack of speech capability," can also imply a "lack of hearing ...


11

The only New Testament book to use the name is the Revelation. Four times in chapter 19, we find the word αλληλουια, which is the Greek translation of 'hallelu Yah' ('praise Yah'). The abbreviated form of YHWH, sometimes also used in the Hebrew scriptures, but the name nonetheless. Otherwise the New Testament authors follow the traditional custom of ...


9

Occurrences in the New Testament Corpus ᾅδης (Hades) appears 10 times in the New Testament,1 and the context of each occurrence indicates that it is the abode of the dead. One particular account references the idiomatic idea of 'Abraham's bosom'2 and includes the idea of a division within Hades where some are comforted and others are tormented in fire, ...


7

In Matt. 10:34, it is written, μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν οὐκ ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἀλλὰ μάχαιραν Do not think that I came to send peace on the earth. I did not come to send peace, but rather, a sword! The "sword" (Greek μάχαιρα) represents "division" (Greek διαμερισμός), and this is evident when we examine the Synoptic ...


6

There were two main qualifications, one is primarily cultural, and one is really universal. A host family (or person) would need to be hospitable. Abraham, Lot, and others throughout the Old Testament were "lovers of strangers" (to use an anachronistic expression derived from the Greek word for hospitality). In the ANE, hospitality and being a good ...


6

The four instances of this clause in John 6 are: 6:39 (NET) — "Now this is the will of the one who sent me—that I should not lose one person of every one he has given me, but raise them all up at the last day." 6:40 (NET) — "For this is the will of my Father—for everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him to have eternal life, and I will ...


6

I am an amateur at this, but I think that 2 Samuel 23 gives us a big clue as to how to interpret Jesus' remarks. Jesus's language appears to be the same language used by David who refused to drink of the water that the soldiers brought him because they had risked their lives to bring it to him, and what they brought to David was not worth them losing their ...


6

Contemporary Jewish Apocalypses 2 Esdras is a Jewish apocalypse with later Christian additions. One chapter, written by the original Jewish author, has the following: In the thirtieth year after the destruction of the city, I was in Babylon — I, Salathiel, who am also called Ezra. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my ...


6

When comparing John 20:30-31 to other early Christian texts, it appears 'Christ' and 'son of God' (and 'Lord') were understood as synonyms when used for Jesus. The two terms appear in conjunction somewhat regularly1, a few you have already noted in a comment above. The reason for why the two phrases are so often used in relation to each other probably ...


6

Restricting oneself to the most literal of meanings is often wrong in any language. We cannot simply say "what does this word mean at its root?" We must go on to ask "how was this word used in this verse?" That the preferred form for a Roman cross was indeed a vertical stake with a crosspiece is well established in history. Stauros could mean "cross" more ...


6

In the preceding and following verses, Paul talks about something 'written with ink', '[written] on tablets of stone', 'the letter', 'the ministry of death, carved on tablets of stone', 'the ministry of condemnation', and 'the old covenant / Moses' which has a 'veil'. These are all in contrast to '[written] with the spirit of the living God', '[written] on ...


6

First, let's examine the usage of this word in Scripture itself: Hades is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Sheol. This Greek word appears 10 times in the NT; word study indicates the following: -it is down (as opposed to the heavens) & it is used as a negative consequence --Mt 11:23, Lk 10:15 -it is a force that would attempt to overcome the ...


6

Yes. Titus 1:12: One of Crete’s own prophets has said it: ‘Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.’ The footnote in the NIV says, "From the Cretan philosopher Epimenides". Researching Epimenides led me to Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible which also mentions 1 Corinthians 15:33: Do not be misled: ‘Bad company corrupts good ...


4

Acts of the Apostles has an unattributed quote from the ancient play, the Bacchae by Euripides (d. 406 BCE): "It hurts you to kick against the goad[or 'pricks']" (Acts 26:14). That this short passage is not a coincidence can be established because the situation and context are the same, and Acts even has Jesus using the same plural form of the noun (kentra) ...


4

Yes. Dr. C. Matthew McMahon writes that the belief that the four gospels were written in Hebrew is an idea that is not consistent with the manuscript evidence, and furthermore he draws the conclusion that believing that the four gospels were written in Hebrew is detrimental to knowing who God is, what he is like, and that Jesus is both God and man. See his ...


3

This verse has a parallel in Matt. 26:46, in which the same verb ἄγωμεν occurs. The particular conjugation ἄγωμεν also occurs in the following verses. It is the equivalent of the English phrase, "Let's go..." Mark 1:38 John 11:7 John 11:15 John 14:31 Thayer describes this usage sense as intransitive (lacking a direct object).1 However, it can be followed ...


3

The following text was originally part of my question. But it was pointed out that I really was answering my own question. What I really want is that this answer is to be supplemented with other views that from an academic point of view argue that this might be referring to something else than Rome. Many scholars take this as referring to Rome for a good ...


3

Matthew 23.27-28 actually uses the term γραμματευς, which means 'scribes'. However, the Gospel writers use γραμματευς interchangeably with νομικος, meaning 'lawyers'. Compare Matthew 23.13-39 using 'scribes' with the parallel Luke 11.42-52 using 'lawyers'. More rarely this group is called νομοδιδασκαλος, which actually does mean 'teachers of the Law'. This ...


3

Every instance of the word cross in the New Testament--save for a couple instances of the word in the phrase cross over--is stauros, which has been a Greek masculine given-name for quite awhile (analogous, I suppose, to the surname Taylor being derived from tailor, Smith from [black]smith, Cooper from cooper, etc. The cross to which our Lord was impaled by ...


3

Not a writer but a (however windy) speaker and (unsuccessful to say the least) comforter: Eliphas of Teman (against Job, same book 16:3). Even though part of scripture, still it is pagan, even uninspired, but written it is. (The saying there, not the writing down.): 'He catches the wise in their own craftiness' (Job 5:13). Paul still esteems him, ...


2

While Hades originally referred to the Greek god of the underworld, eventually the name was attached to his realm also. One part of the Greek underworld was called Tartarus, and it was a place of torment for the most wicked. 2 Peter 2:4, 1 Enoch 20:2-3, and the Jewish Syballine Oracles 4:240 also refer to Tartarus.


2

Short Answer: In context "you are to be perfect" means "you are to love as God loves: without partiality" Justification First, consider the immediate context: You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be sons of your ...


2

In context, Jesus is telling his disciples their standard is not to be the letter of the law but the perfection of God. The statement appears at the end of a segment in the Sermon on the Mount where Jesus specifically deals with his disciples relationship with the law (Matthew 5:17-48). The section begins 17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish ...


2

I would say that swasheck's comment regarding emphasis is most likely. It probably should not need to be said, but many people are unaware that "Christ" is not a name, and they tend to treat it almost as a surname for Jesus. (I believe Wright gets around this misunderstanding by rendering Χριστός as "King," but I'm not fully satisfied with that expedient, as ...


2

I propose that "the letter of the law" is meant to indicate any [finite] approximation of Law, whereas "the spirit of the law" is meant to indicate Law itself—how things actually work, down to the smallest detail. We read in Romans 10:4, For Christ is the telos of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes. The translations of telos are ...


2

While I appreciate the careful and detailed answer that @Daи provided, I lean the other direction in my conclusion. First I checked with several commentaries that I had at hand, most of which assume (without support) that Zechariah was both mute and deaf. Bock gives the question a little more attention: he cites three arguments in favor of the mute-only ...


1

The Greek adjective here is ἄξιος, which has two meanings in the Christian New Testament: (a) It means to be deserving. So the slave was "deserving" of a flogging (Lu 12:48); the prodigal son was not "deserving" to be called the son of his father (Lk 15:19); John the Baptist was not "deserving" to untie the sandals of Jesus (Jn 1:27); the Centurion in ...


1

In the Christian New Testament, "Babylon" is metonymy for Gentile world power. According to the Hebrew Bible, Babylon was the first Gentile world power to enter the stage of world history when the visible theocratic kingdom on earth ended. That is, the Shekinah Glory, which had resided in the temple up until that point of time, had been the locus of the ...


1

Short Answer: Jesus' answer (in v.23 and v.24) is a re-wording and expansion of what He had just said in v.21. Actually, v.21 answered Judas' question before he even asked it, but Judas was confused (as the people around Jesus frequently were in John's Gospel) and so Jesus said it again for him in different words. The Broad Context Let's take a look at ...



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