Tag Info

Hot answers tagged

16

To answer your first question, we should not simply accept Sinaiticus as the source of the truth for the New Testament. It has great weight in debates from its age, but age is not the final arbiter in textual considerations. Codex Sinaiticus was made in the 4th century on parchment using capital letters (a manuscript in all capitals is called an "uncial"). ...


14

My impression is that Aramaic primacy is not taken very seriously among experts, so there's not much in the way of scholarly works debunking it. (This is not unusual, compare to say mythicism or the theory that Jesus and Mary Magdaline were married, neither of which had scholarly debunkings until recently.) So rather than citing experts, I'm just going to ...


14

The footnote exists because textual variants exist (different manuscripts have different words). Although "son" and "god" seem different, μονογενὴς θεός (the only God) and ὁ μονογενὴς υἱός (the only son) are actually not far off. In fact, in some of the manuscripts, they are contracted such that only one letter distinguishes them. We cannot be certain which ...


14

Jesus Himself quoted non-biblical sources. He quoted (loosely, I presume) a popular, Farmer's Almanac-type saying when He said, "When it is evening, you say, 'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red.' And in the morning, 'There will be a storm today, for the sky is red and threatening.' Do you know how to discern the appearance of the sky, but ...


11

The only New Testament book to use the name is the Revelation. Four times in chapter 19, we find the word αλληλουια, which is the Greek translation of 'hallelu Yah' ('praise Yah'). The abbreviated form of YHWH, sometimes also used in the Hebrew scriptures, but the name nonetheless. Otherwise the New Testament authors follow the traditional custom of ...


11

There are two possible reasons why 'they were signing' (ἐνένευον) to him in Luke 1:62: Zechariah was mute and deaf. While there is no indication that the angel Gabriel brought about anything other than muteness,1 v. 22 states that he remained κωφός, which in addition to referring to a "lack of speech capability," can also imply a "lack of hearing ...


10

Occurrences in the New Testament Corpus ᾅδης (Hades) appears 10 times in the New Testament,1 and the context of each occurrence indicates that it is the abode of the dead. One particular account references the idiomatic idea of 'Abraham's bosom'2 and includes the idea of a division within Hades where some are comforted and others are tormented in fire, ...


9

I. Howard Marshall gives a concise statement of the options for harmonization in his commentary: It is quite possible that Matthew or Luke is simply reporting what was commonly said in Jerusalem, and that we are not meant to harmonize the two accounts. If we do try to harmonzie (sic) them, the following possibilities arise: (1). Judas hanged himself ...


9

In Matt. 10:34, it is written, Do not think that I came to send peace on the earth. I did not come to send peace, but rather, a sword! μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν οὐκ ἦλθον βαλεῖν εἰρήνην ἀλλὰ μάχαιραν The "sword" (Greek μάχαιρα) represents "division" (Greek διαμερισμός), and this is evident when we examine the Synoptic ...


7

Noah has given an excellent answer, but I would like to give other issues with Aramaic primacy. There are NT fragments in Greek that are older than anything in Aramaic. Very early fragments. The John Rylands fragment of John's Gospel, P52 (AD ~125), is older by centuries than any copy of the Peshitta that has survived, and even older than the work in the ...


7

Typically the word "righteous" or "just" are simply alternative translations of the same word, "dikaios" (δικαιος and cognate verbs and such). There is simply no difference. I'll go ahead and add an analogous example that people also often confuse, and that is the difference between "faith" and "belief". In Greek they are translations of the same root. In ...


7

In the preceding and following verses, Paul talks about something 'written with ink', '[written] on tablets of stone', 'the letter', 'the ministry of death, carved on tablets of stone', 'the ministry of condemnation', and 'the old covenant / Moses' which has a 'veil'. These are all in contrast to '[written] with the spirit of the living God', '[written] on ...


6

The early christians made a tradition out of meeting on "the first day of the week", which is Sunday, because Saturday is the last day of the week (you can compare this to an American calendar which start the week on a Sunday and ends it on a Saturday.) Acts 20:7: On the first day of the week we came together to break bread. Paul spoke to the people ...


6

The oldest and most studied claim of this sort is that there was an Aramaic gospel which served as a source for the synoptics. In particular, many early church fathers believed that the original version of Matthew was written in Aramaic based in part on the writings of Papias who said: "For Matthew composed the logia [sayings] in Hebrew style; but each ...


6

Although Frank has a great answer above, I thought I'd add a couple of things. The question of the proximity of a text to the original depends on a number of factors, age being an important one, but certainly not the only one. To think about this, it is necessary to think about the process of manuscript manufacture in the early years of the church. ...


6

Yes. Titus 1:12: One of Crete’s own prophets has said it: ‘Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.’ The footnote in the NIV says, "From the Cretan philosopher Epimenides". Researching Epimenides led me to Non-canonical books referenced in the Bible which also mentions 1 Corinthians 15:33: Do not be misled: ‘Bad company corrupts good ...


6

Restricting oneself to the most literal of meanings is often wrong in any language. We cannot simply say "what does this word mean at its root?" We must go on to ask "how was this word used in this verse?" That the preferred form for a Roman cross was indeed a vertical stake with a crosspiece is well established in history. Stauros could mean "cross" more ...


6

When comparing John 20:30-31 to other early Christian texts, it appears 'Christ' and 'son of God' (and 'Lord') were understood as synonyms when used for Jesus. The two terms appear in conjunction somewhat regularly1, a few you have already noted in a comment above. The reason for why the two phrases are so often used in relation to each other probably ...


6

I am an amateur at this, but I think that 2 Samuel 23 gives us a big clue as to how to interpret Jesus' remarks. Jesus's language appears to be the same language used by David who refused to drink of the water that the soldiers brought him because they had risked their lives to bring it to him, and what they brought to David was not worth them losing their ...


6

The four instances of this clause in John 6 are: 6:39 (NET) — "Now this is the will of the one who sent me—that I should not lose one person of every one he has given me, but raise them all up at the last day." 6:40 (NET) — "For this is the will of my Father—for everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him to have eternal life, and I will ...


6

Contemporary Jewish Apocalypses 2 Esdras is a Jewish apocalypse with later Christian additions. One chapter, written by the original Jewish author, has the following: In the thirtieth year after the destruction of the city, I was in Babylon — I, Salathiel, who am also called Ezra. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my ...


6

There were two main qualifications, one is primarily cultural, and one is really universal. A host family (or person) would need to be hospitable. Abraham, Lot, and others throughout the Old Testament were "lovers of strangers" (to use an anachronistic expression derived from the Greek word for hospitality). In the ANE, hospitality and being a good ...


5

First, let's examine the usage of this word in Scripture itself: Hades is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Sheol. This Greek word appears 10 times in the NT; word study indicates the following: -it is down (as opposed to the heavens) & it is used as a negative consequence --Mt 11:23, Lk 10:15 -it is a force that would attempt to overcome the ...


5

I would say that swasheck's comment regarding emphasis is most likely. It probably should not need to be said, but many people are unaware that "Christ" is not a name, and they tend to treat it almost as a surname for Jesus. (I believe Wright gets around this misunderstanding by rendering Χριστός as "King," but I'm not fully satisfied with that expedient, as ...


5

Check out James R. Edwards' book, The Hebrew Gospel and the Development of the Synoptic Tradition. From my review in the Stone-Campbell Journal, 14:2 Fall, 2011: This volume presents an older idea concerning the formation of the Synoptic Gospels, while connecting the data in a new way. The current volume resurrects an older idea concerning the formation ...


5

Jesus seems to have followed, out of courtesy, the taboo by the Rabbis on pronouncing the Lords name (יהוה‎) Yahweh as though there was something sacred about it. This was not the original practice of the Hebrews but a ban on pronouncing the name started to appear around the time of Antiochus IV (175 BC). Simply from the fact that the New Testament never ...


5

The word translated "but" is alla. It is used to show the next clause is adverse to the first. Usually, the word is translated as "but." According to the NET translation team, it can be used in the sense of: 1) but 1a) nevertheless, notwithstanding 1b) an objection 1c) an exception 1d) a restriction 1e) nay, rather, yea, moreover 1f) forms a transition ...


5

As a supplement to Frank Luke's answer, I add another way of thinking about it. The construction in English is very similar to the Greek: not X, but [instead] Y. (Wallace calls ἀλλὰ here a contrastive conjunction.1) For example, if I say "Put not your hand into boiling water, but use a spoon." The contrast is between: X= put your hand into boiling ...


4

καταλλάγητε is the 2nd plural aorist passive imperative of καταλλάσσω. Breaking this down, 2nd plural is you (all) "y'all." Passive makes the subject of the verb the recipient of the action. Imperatives are commands and aorist imperatives generally indicate a command to start something. So what would "we reconcile them" look like? καταλλάσoμεν αὐτοῦς. ...


4

Certainly it changes the passage from being descriptive to being prescriptive. The intent of that section (6:3-10) seems to be to contrast two types of people: 1) those with unsound doctrine who pursue "godliness" as a means to financial gain, and 2) those with sound teaching who pursue contentment for a different kind of gain. If the phrase is kept, it ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible