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23

In support of the human sacrifice theory, Kaiser in Hard Sayings of the Bible says: People, even servants of God, do horrid things. This era was very corrupt and there is no reason to see Jephthah as substantially different than his contemporaries. The sacrifice of his daughter is the most natural way to interpret the text. Gleason Archer (who opposes ...


12

According the the NET Bible translator note on the verse: 1 tn Heb “ a woman, a prophetess.” In Hebrew idiom the generic “woman” sometimes precedes the more specific designation. See GKC 437-38 §135.b. Interestingly, since her husband, Lappidoth, is identified the text must reorient itself to point back to Deborah when talking about her leadership ...


11

There is no mention in the text of dedication or of the tabernacle, and so the main thing recommending an interpretation involving those things is the bewailing of virginity. I won't go so far as to say that a reading of dedication to tabernacle service is completely unwarranted; but I want to give some push back to some of the points in Frank Luke's answer ...


9

Jon Ericson has already given a thorough interpretation, but just to answer the Hebrew query in your question: וּדְבוֹרָה אִשָּׁה נְבִיאָה, אֵשֶׁת לַפִּידוֹת--הִיא שֹׁפְטָה אֶת-יִשְׂרָאֵל, בָּעֵת הַהִיא. (From Mechon Mamre) אִשָּׁה (woman) is the feminine form of אִישׁ (man). The other Hebrew words in this passage that are explicitly feminine are: ...


9

The NET Bible includes this translator's note: Heb “the one coming out, who comes out from.” The text uses a masculine singular participle with prefixed article, followed by a relative pronoun and third masculine singular verb. The substantival masculine singular participle הַיּוֹצֵא (hayyotse’, “the one coming out”) is used elsewhere of inanimate ...


7

The entire book of Judges documents the failure of leadership in Israel from the time of Joshua to Saul. In fact, the phrase "In those days there was no king in Israel" is repeated four times. Although the text seems to be structured chronologically, the stories are actually arraigned geographically from south to north, which allows the accounts to follow ...


7

The barley cake does not have the gluten content of wheat, so it does not stick together like wheat bread. In this case it is not even a proper leavened loaf, an "ugah", just a lowly "tslil', unleavened, roasted dough eaten only by the poorest of the poor. As it rolls towards the camp of Midian it breaks into crumbs, just as Gideon's forces are progressively ...


7

Rashi is the "great compiler" among the rabbis. Most of what he writes came from earlier sources, not his own innovation. In this case, the rabbis who preceded Rashi are starting from the text of 12:7, which clearly says "cities", and asking the question: how could one man be buried in more than one city? That the text is of divine origin, and thus ...


6

Rashi comments on textual problems, he never gives general information that an astute reader could otherwise independently infer. The textual problem in Judges 12:7 is the place name of Jephtah's burial. The problem is that the place name ערי גלעד "Arei Gilaad" is not otherwise known to us from the OT, and that the form of the name looks like a plural in ...


6

The first two paragraphs are in response to @Lance Roberts' post, but also answer the question. Deborah was already in a position of authority within Israel as a prophetess and also as a judge. Those who support the complementarian position often state that Deborah was most likely only a leader because men had failed to step up to the plate, as is further ...


6

The Hebrew looks like this: בִּפְרֹעַ פְּרָעוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל... The difficulty in translating this verse stems from the ambiguity inherent in the Hebrew root word para פרע, which appears twice in a row (as though for emphasis) in the first two words of this verse. (The third word of the verse, is "Israel.") The word para can be translated as: Burst ...


6

No, the Caananites were not destroyed by the Jewish people. The cited verse in Joshua 10:40 speaks only of the completion of Joshua's campaign against the Canaanie tribes of the south. In the next chapter Joshua fights the nortthern tribes. In chapter 13, when Joshua is already too old to continue the fight, G-d tells Joshua that his job is incomplete; he ...


5

The Hebrew word used is “הלא” ha-lo, which translates to the cumbersome “is it not so that…”. (JPS 1917 ed. translates this verse as “Hath not the LORD, the God of Israel, commanded, saying…”.) It’s a fairly common literary convention within the Bible to jump into the middle of a conversation. (Cf. Exodus 10; where before most of the plagues we overhear ...


5

I think it's best to understand the then as applying to both the angel of the LORD ascending in the flame as well as departing, taking the incident as a whole. When Manoah and his wife see the angel of the LORD ascend in the flame, they both fall with their faces to the ground - very typical of a theophany (e.g. Genesis 17:1-3, Exodus 3:6, Numbers 22:31, ...


4

According to Brown, Driver, and Briggs Lexicon, the word translated "then" is 'az which carries a meaning of "at that time." I would understand the first part of this verse as being parenthetical to the statement of verse 20. Judges 13:19-21 (ESV) 19 So Manoah took the young goat with the grain offering, and offered it on the rock to the LORD, to the ...


4

For context, the Gileadites were the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh who chose to occupy the land on the opposite side of the Jordan from the rest of Israel. This region was called Gilead. The Ephraimites had crossed the Jordan in order to confront the Gileadites, but were defeated by their fellow Israelites. The passage in question ...


4

I'll take a stab at this one: The author of Judges (as also the authors of all the other books of the Bible) had a particular objective in mind when penning his book. Unlike modern-day historical textbooks or contemporary novels, the books of the Bible were written with a theological purpose, not a commercial or encyclopedic one. This isn't to say that they ...


4

According to many Rabbis, Meroz is a planet from which heavenly beings inhabit like the JUDGES 5:20 REFERENCES: 5:20 From the sky the stars fought. From their courses, they fought against Sisera. 5:23 'Curse Meroz,' said the angel of Yahweh. 'Curse bitterly its inhabitants, because they didn't come to help Yahweh, to help Yahweh against the ...


4

The context seems to indicate a local population, that is, within view if the battle near the Jezreel valley. That would probably rule out Simeon, the southernmost tribe, Judah which was south of Jerusalem, and Levy who was without a specific geographic inheritance except for the six designated cities of refuge, none of which are near the Jezreel valley to ...


4

Rik Smits, in "The Puzzle of Left-Handedness", points out that slingers and other fighters really needed to be sorted by handedness. They stood close together, and if they were mixed up, people were going to get hurt. 10% of the male population, more or less, appears to have been left-handed since the birth of Homo Sapiens. Rather than try to intersperse ...


4

There isn’t any historical consensus regarding the origins of leavened bread. However, the earliest archaeological evidence that we have happens to be from ancient Egypt: The development of leavened bread can also probably be traced to prehistoric times. Yeast spores occur everywhere, including the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest ...


4

In the Samson cycle of stories, the wedding riddle is a metaphor of the impossible situation that Samson, and by identification, the Israelites, are in. This cycle of stories deals with the ambivalent nature of the relationship with the Philistines. On the one hand, they are bitterest of enemies. One the other, there is rampant assimilation into Philistine ...


4

It does remind one of "What have I got in my pocket?", doesn't it? In the Hobbit, Bilbo and Gollum agree that, since it isn't an entirely proper riddle, Gollum will get three guesses. It seems that Samson and his potential in-laws agreed to a similar solution. Reading on: And in three days they could not solve the riddle. On the fourth day they ...


4

Rashi says she was killed: and it was a statute: They decreed that no one should do this anymore (i.e., they publicized that no one should offer a human being), because had Jephthah gone to Phinehas or vice versa, he would have nullified his (i.e., Jephthah’s) vow (i.e., he would have instructed him what the law is in such an instance). However, ...


4

Regarding the phrase, "And YHVH said to the children of Yisra'el," Rabbi David Kimchi wrote, על ידי נביא, that is, "by the hands of a prophet" (cp. Jdg. 6:8). One should recall that the Israelites pleaded with God that He no more speak to them personally (Exo. 20:19 cp. Deut. 18:15-19). So, in particular contexts where it seems as though God is speaking to ...


4

Dvorah is calling out all the tribes that sat on their hands and refused to fight. Each tribe sat on its hands in its characteristic way. Dan is famous for trading in ships, so they stayed by their ships. As opposed to Reuben, who more or less stayed by their sheeps. The nautical tendencies of Dan are mentioned in the old Jewish Encyclopedia. This verse is ...


4

The word raḥamatayim is the dual form of the word reḥem. This root literally means “womb” but can also mean “woman” for obvious reasons. So Sisera’s mother is comforting herself, saying the delay is because the soldiers are collecting slave girls: “A womb or a pair-of-wombs for every man.” But in English, this reads more naturally as “A womb or two for ...


3

Gideon's name in Hebrew, גדעון (<H1439>), is derived from גָּדַע (<H1438>): to cut, hew, chop, cut down, hew down, hew off, cut off, cut in two, shave off Therefore, it has a strong connotation with violence and destruction. It's the verb used in Isaiah 10:33 to describe the destruction God will inflict on Israel's enemies: Lo! The Sovereign ...


3

"Okay, there's an eater. Bulldozers 'eat' buildings, don't they? Oh wait, we haven't invented those yet. Venus flytrap? Nope, haven't discovered those yet. OK, must be an animal. Or maybe a bunch of them like a swarm of locusts. Oh, but it's strong...maybe a dragon or a leviathan or a lion or a bull.." "Now, something sweet. Hmm. Gummy bears? Snickers? ...


3

There is no ambiguity about Deborah’s gender, but I have seen the words usually translated as “wife of Lapidoth” sometimes translated “a fiery woman”.



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