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12

This question was just asked over at the Judaism site, so I'll repost my answer from there here. In general it is difficult to find pre-Christian rabbinic commentary, since the earliest rabbinic commentaries began coalescing around the end of the Second Temple period, in the first century CE. So while early midrashic collections like the Sifra and Mekhilta ...


11

The other two answers do a good job of answering the question, but I thought it was worth pointing out the actual ban and its explanation: Leviticus 17:10 Explicitly makes your point for you; those who consume the blood of animals are cut off from the Jews, but then verse 11 explains the reason for the ban on blood of animals; drinking blood takes upon ...


11

This answer draws on Michael J. Cahill, "Drinking Blood at a Kosher Eucharist? The Sound of Scholarly Silence", Biblical Theology Bulletin 32/4 (2002): 168-181. It should be consulted directly for full discussion and copious further references. OP: Wouldn't Jews be taken aback by the suggestion that they should drink blood? Yes, they would. OP: How ...


9

The word used in verses 14, 17, and 18 is bətûlîm, “evidence(s) of virginity.” This is from bətûlâ, “virgin”, which is used in verse 19 to describe a woman thus evidenced. It refers to the custom of retaining a blood-stained sheet or cloth from the bed where a marriage is consummated. The blood (dam betulim) is said to “prove” the bride’s virginity as it ...


8

I asked about this question at the Judaism.SE site and was told that it is difficult to find pre-Christian Rabbinic sources. It seems that the current understanding of Psalm 22 within Judaism deals with the plight of the Jewish Nation in Exile.1 However, Rashi's 11th-century commentary states that Our Sages, however, interpreted it [(ayeleth hashachar, ...


8

The first and most important clue is found in the annotation of the Psalm: For the Leader; upon Aijeleth ha-Shahar. A Psalm of David "Of David" can mean that it was written by, about, or in the style of David. Since the Psalm is written in the first person, any way you look at it, the subject must have originally been David. Nothing in the Psalm ...


6

Yes, Baptism is well attested in Jewish sources dating from both before and after Christ. These are both for mainstream Judaism and sectarian. From before Jesus, one finds clear references to baptism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. See for example, 1QS (The Community Rule) and 4Q274-276 (The Purity Texts). From sources dating after Jesus (but portraying ...


6

The Rabbinic interpretation is: Messianic "Ancient of Days" is a name of God "son of man" is a mistranslation The term "ben adam" or "bar enosh" is used in OT Hebrew to mean a mortal, fallible human being. Used commonly by God when addressing mortals to remind them of their place in the general scheme of things. (And used commonly in modern Hebrew to ...


6

The OP quote from James in Acts is consistent with requiring the Gentiles to adhere to the seven commandments to bnei Noah, but not to "trouble" them with the other 606 commandments still required of the nation of Israel, at least not immediately as a prerequisite for learning the Torah. James's opinion might indicate that the Gentiles should then study the ...


6

Jesus had aleady shocked his followers with references to drinking blood in John Chapter 6. "For My flesh is true food, and My blood is true drink" When leads to.. As a result of this many of His disciples withdrew and were not walking with Him anymore. I think we can infer that by the time of the Last Supper, any disciples who had a problem with ...


5

Commentators generally see this as a reference to the Mosaic laws forbidding blasphemy. For example, Barnes' Notes, the Pulpit Commentary, the Cambridge Bible and Ellicott's Commentary see it this way. Whoever blasphemes the name of the LORD shall surely be put to death. All the congregation shall stone him. The sojourner as well as the native, when he ...


4

Occam writes: In Genesis 1:26, there aren't in fact three instances of "us". There is only one instance, "We will make", or "Let us make", followed by two possessives of the same number. The verse can be translated equally well as "Let us make mankind in our image and likeness" - with only two "us"s, as the Cambridge "New English Bible" translates. ...


4

I don't think so. The return of Christ can't be reasonably connected to Rosh Hashanah because the shofar was blown on many other occasions as well, including war. Besides, it is more likely that the trumpets your mention would be understood by ancient Jews as the 'silver trumpets' blown daily by the priests in the temple. We can't tell in the Greek which ...


4

Not really, unless we imagine the decision of the Council is at odds not only with Paul's wishes, but also with what Peter stated during the course of the argument (describing the yoke of Torah as something that "neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear," Acts 15:10). According to Acts, Paul certainly seems to have thought the decision was a ...


3

According to rabbinic sources, women, children, and slaves, are not required to fulfill any commandment which is classified as a "מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא" (mitzvat asei shehazman gerama), a positive commandment dependent on time: וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמה אנשים חיבין ונשים פטורות, וכל מצות עשה שלא הזמן גרמה אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חיבין. (Mishna Kiddushin 1:7, ...


2

Good question. Strictly speaking, we don't know how commonly held the belief was (as we do not have a huge number of documents from that exact time period, and certainly "opinion surveys" didn't exist then). However, the IVP Commentary does a good job of explaining the probable background based on rabbinic comments from the following centuries. I will ...


1

Very few Hebrew manuscripts are said to have survived the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, drastically reducing the number of variants in circulation up to that time. Without the earlier Hebrew texts, we can only know about those variants indirectly, from the Septuagint and from the Dead Sea Scrolls. Wikipedia tells us in its article on the Masoretic ...


1

This is a good question, and touches on a number of hermeneutical nuances. In order to bring out some of the subtleties which will underlie our answer, I'd like to begin by reviewing a number of key assumptions inherent in the question itself. Assumption 1: The disciples were Jews It is true that the disciples were of Israelite descent and had grown up ...


1

Question Restatement: According to Jewish Tradition, or Mosaic Law, what was happening at the 9th hour? Question Clarification: This is either in relationship to a general day of the week, (like Acts 3:1), or the Preparation Day of the Sabbath, or Sabbath Gadol -- and both answers are very different. Answer, Regarding Jewish Daily Prayers: (A.) ...


1

I think it is clear that the final redactor(s) thought of Elohim as one, and therefore as the sole-one who created mankind (human beings). The phrase 'Let us make...' is a borrowed-motif from other Ancient Near East cultures, and alludes to the concept of a Divine Council (Assembly) - something that the final redactor(s) believed based on the following ...


1

As you know, Jesus died on Pessach. This is one of the three feasts Jews are commanded to go to Jerusalem. So Jews from all over the world were present at the time of Jesus' dead and resurrection, and many of them gave their lives over to Christ. So Hebraic Jews would be inhabitants of Israel, while Greek Jews would be the rest from all over. After they ...



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