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The Idea in Brief Before the appearance of the Masoretic Text in the Tenth Century, at least three early witnesses attest to the forty day period in Jonah: the Dead Sea Scrolls at both Wadi Murabba'at and at the so-called "Cave of Horrors" in Nahal Hever, which both date to the First Century; and, thirdly, the Targum Jonathan, which dates to the Second to ...


8

Did Jonah actually die in the whale? No, there is no reason to suppose that is how the text would have been understood at the time of writing, or the time of Jesus. It is a poetic figure of speech indicating a brush with death rather than actual physical death. David uses similar language in Psalms 18 and 86 for example: 18:4The cords of death ...


6

May be the addition of Directive ה◌̞ I do not believe the passage needs to be viewed as two distinct lexemes. The vowel pointing with the ה◌̞ suffix matches the form of what ה takes for its known directive uses, or the ה locale. Ronald J. Williams in Williams' Hebrew Syntax, 3rd ed. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007) notes of this suffix: ...


3

The Idea in Brief There are two lexemes at hand. Thus the infinitive absolute in the Hiphil stem of the Hebrew verb דָּגָה seems to appear here, which would mean to cover with darkness. That is, the infinitive absolute here would function as a verbal noun, and therefore the הַ (he-) would be part of the hiphil stem. The word would therefore be translated ...


2

I believe that לֵֽאלֹהִ֔ים was being used as a reference to the Deity, and that the lamed is simply the normal indicator of the possessive. The Book of Jonah itself can actually go a long way to clarify what G'd's opinion of Nineveh was. The final verse of Jonah is very telling, which I reproduce here: 4:11 וַאֲנִי לֹא אָחוּס עַל נִינְוֵה הָעִיר ...



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