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Dr. Mayer Gruber, Associate Professor in the Department of Bible and Ancient Near Eastern Studies at Ben-Gurion University, wrote a very lengthy introduction to the Book of Job in the Jewish Publishing Society Jewish Study Bible, based on the JPS Tanakh. Without equivocation, he states, "Job is the most difficult book of the Bible to interpret." Regarding ...


Establishing the date for the Book of Job is difficult, not least because it clearly had at least two authors over a period of some centuries. Part of the book is poetic and another, quite distinct part is prose. Some material appears to be post-exilic, but other parts reflect a much earlier belief system. This answer focuses on the Book of Job in the form ...


According to biblical scholars who include James Glentworth Butler, The Bible-Work: Old Testament, Vol. 4- Job suffered approximately 60-80 years- the equivalent of our contemporary lifespan. Susequently, that time, added to 140 yrs referenced in the scripture, excluding his tribulation yrs, would mean that Job lived to be about 200 yrs old.


There is no suggestion that the ancient Hebrews believed in the fire-breathing dragons of medieval lore, but they did believe in supernatural monsters loosely described as 'chaos monsters'. These were mythological creatures that inhabit creation stories and had to be defeated in order to bring order to the world. Behemoth literally means 'great beast' and ...

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