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15

The text does not use the same word to describe both of them, so in a sense the "burden of proof" is on the argument for association, not the argument for difference, no? The serpent is described as an Earthly creature (with consequences for others of its kind, as noted by @Richard), so "heavenly being disguised as (or possessing) an earthly being" seems ...


13

That's not feminine; that's masculine. These are "pausal forms", so when the preposition lamed plus 2 msc sg suffix would normally be lĕkā, in "pause" it is lāk -- which is the same form as the 2 fem sg, and thus the confusion. See Gesenius-Kautzsch-Cowley, Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (2nd edn; Clarendon Press, 1910), at § 27n, p. 97 (last line of that ...


12

The problem is that the three friends, Zophar, Eliphaz and Bildad, claim that God always brings punishment to the wicked and blessings to the good. Their theology states that if something bad happens to someone, it must be because they did something bad. If something good happens, it must be because they did something good. Using this theology, they try to ...


10

While I agree with Soldarnal's analysis, this question is interesting enough that I would like to play devil's advocate. I've been mulling over the issue all week so bear with my (overly-long) answer. God's Accuser The setup of Job is the Adversary looking for a way to discredit God: The Adversary answered the Lord, “Does Job not have good reason to ...


10

This is an intriguing interpretation, but there are a couple things that I think militate against it: First, Job 32:2-3 seems to frame the discussion that precedes it in terms similar to the traditional interpretation as concerning theodicy. Elihu is angry because Job has taken up the cause of his own justice rather than that of God's. He is also angry ...


10

Who are the morning stars? From the text, I would say the morning stars are the sons of God that are mentioned. This passage seemed to follow a common parallel format found in the surrounding text. Look at the repetitious nature of the surrounding passages for my reasoning: 5 Who determined its measurements—surely you know! Or who stretched the line ...


10

The events of Job 1 say "in that same hour", so that chapter appears to have occurred at the same time. Job 2 occurs at the next meeting between God and the Accuser, but there is no mention of the frequency with which those occurred. But, Job 2 says: And they sat with him on the ground seven days and seven nights, and no one spoke a word to him, for they ...


9

Perhaps it's a case of YAPSM (Yet another primordial sea monster) in the Bible. In recollecting from the only secular scripture class I've taken, which you may take with a grain of salt if you wish, there's Leviathan and Behemoth which represent crocodiles and hippos accordingly. Rahab, is another sea monster, (s)he also makes her presence known in ...


9

The question is really an issue of what kind of cosmology the authors of the various biblical books assume in the course of their writing. When we read the Hebrew scriptures, the few books that have anything to say on the subject never explicitly say 'the earth is flat'. But if we can determine the overall shape of the cosmos as the different writers ...


8

It's actually quite difficult, sticking to just the Hebrew Scriptures, to link the two persons. The New Testament contains far more references to Satan - and, of course, Revelation 20:2 pretty explicitly links the two - but in the Hebrew Bible there are only three instances of the Satan/Adversary: Job 1-2; Zechariah 3:-12 and 1 Chronicles 21:1. Even at that, ...


8

At first glance it seemed strange to me as well. However, given that the context is the good things that occur to the wicked, and in the next verse (14) we see how the wicked take these things for granted, it makes sense that it would be a positive thing, and going down to sheol in a moment wouldn't be. The root is רגע , which aside for 'moment' can actually ...


8

The context at hand is not concerning the maidens, but concerning the ferocious creature of the sea, Leviathan. This is the key to understanding the context. There is no cynicism, but in fact grave awe. The word Leviathan (לִוְיָתָן) is only mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible, and refers to either a ferocious creature of the sea, or to an angelic ...


7

Are Job's friends the voice of the Accuser? In my framework for understanding Job, in the context of justice, the men roughly represent: Job: The wisdom of Ecclesiastes (mis-applied) Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar: The wisdom of Proverbs (also mis-applied) Elihu: the voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Prepare the way of the Lord" Job identifies ...


7

The Hebrew text of Job 6:14 runs as follows: לַמָּ֣ס מֵרֵעֵ֣הוּ חָ֑סֶד וְיִרְאַ֖ת שַׁדַּ֣י יַעֲזֽוֹב׃ lammās mērēʿēhû ḥāsed, wəyirʾat šadday yaʿăzôb Ambiguity has long been recognized as one of the "features" of the Hebrew of the book of Job.1 That enters into the picture here, although there are other issues, too. Context The book of Job has a ...


6

In my framework for understanding Job, Elihu is an Elijah figure. He is the voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Prepare the way of the Lord" This is part of a wider Bible pattern of both: God finally arriving in person to judge (not just in the sense of 'judgement', but also in the sense of leadership and personal presence with his people). God being ...


6

If you read the text straight through without the division into chapters, chapter 28 seems to flow naturally from the end of 27 -- the chapter division almost seems to be in the middle of a thought. I don't know why the chapters were divided the way they were, but they are not in the original text. Chapters 29-31 read clearly as one discourse. So I don't ...


6

It's important to look at these passages in the context of the whole of the book of Job. At the beginning of the book we learn that he is exemplary and at the end of the book he is rewarded by God, so the question is what happened in between. The challenge made by ha-satan in the previous chapter is that Job will "blaspheme You to Your face". (It doesn't ...


6

An angel as a primeval enemy of humanity The Hebrew noun satan, along with related nouns and verbs, are semi-common in the Hebrew scriptures. These terms are used in a variety of contexts and refer to a variety of individuals. In Numbers 22.22,32, for example, it is an angel explicitly acting on God's behalf who is identified as a satan, meaning ...


6

It's not a feminine pronoun (although it looks like one)! Lakh (לָךְ) in this case is a form of the male pronoun lekha known as "pausal," which because of its position as the final word of the verse. Pausal forms generally expand a shva or e-vowel into a qamatz; for example, at the end of Genesis 1:1 eretz becomes aretz. See for example the chart here, or ...


5

The Hebrew for the final clause is: וַיָּבוֹא גַם הַשָּׂטָן, בְּתוֹכָם. גַם means "also", so a straightforward reading suggests that the satan was not part of the group. We see another "exclusive gam" in Gen 33:7, where Yaakov's concubines (handmaids) approach Eisav and "gam Leah" -- Leah is not a handmaid but a wife. These are just two examples, ...


5

The reference to singing comes a few verses later: 4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare, if thou hast the understanding. 5 Who determined the measures thereof, if thou knowest? Or who stretched the line upon it? 6 Whereupon were the foundations thereof fastened? Or who laid the corner-stone thereof, 7 When the morning ...


5

The genre of Job The book of Job falls clearly in the category of wisdom literature: Wisdom literature is a genre of literature common in the Ancient Near East. This genre is characterized by sayings of wisdom intended to teach about divinity and about virtue. The key principle of wisdom literature is that while techniques of traditional story-telling ...


5

In the Tanakh the concept of a "satan" exists, but it is not a personification of evil and there's no particular reason to believe there's even just one for all time. The word "satan" is a job description. The best way to render the Hebrew הַשָּׂטָן is probably literally: "the satan", lowercase 's', with definite article (the הַ). It would be misleading ...


5

Differentiating between "Purpose" and "Grounds" You ask: Why would The Lord allow Satan to have the power to take other lives just for the purpose of proving that Job is a loyal servant? The short answer is that God's "grounds" for having those people die is their own sin, not Job's testing. God allowed it to happen when and how it did for the ...


5

It is commonly believed that Job's original 10 children are in Heaven. The texts do say that Job received a "twice as much", and that he had "more": Job 42:10 And the LORD turned the captivity of Job, when he prayed for his friends: also the LORD gave Job twice as much as he had before. Job 42:12 So the LORD blessed the latter end of Job more ...


4

I realise I'm a little late to the party, but in the interest of posterity and despite Ecclesiastes 1:15, I would like to answer all those comments and claims that the root רגע has no basis as "calm" or "peaceful" in the tanakh. I'm not sure this is the most natural reading of the verse or even the one I subscribe to, however it certainly has a very solid ...


4

Abstract Elihu continues the accusations of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, lacks their wisdom, and is beneath contempt. Structure of the dialogue The core of Job follows a strict order of speeches for three cycles: Job Eliphaz Job Bildad Job Zophar The basic content of Job's words is always the same: questioning God why the calamities of chapter 1 and ...


4

I was surprised by this translation of וְנִחַמְתִּי, because I generally think nacham in the sense of "comfort". However, BDB connects comforting to repentance: verb Niph`al be sorry, console, oneself, etc. (only in derived species) [...] be sorry, moved to pity, have compassion, for others be sorry, rue, suffer grief, repent, of one's own ...


4

The Idea in Brief There are three words in the verse which provide ambiguous meaning, however, the Masorah Parva of the Masoretic Text helps to shed light to the verse. In spite of these difficulties, the MT can be seen to yield good sense. Discussion The first and most significant problem in the verse is the word for "friend." If the Hebrew word is רֵעַ, ...


3

From Wikipedia, Book of Job: The Talmudic tractate Bava Batra (15a-b) maintains that Job was written by Moses, although nowhere does it name its author. Other opinions in the Talmud ascribe it to the period of before the First Temple, the time of the patriarch Jacob, or King Ahasuerus. The Talmud cites a number of opinions about exactly when the events ...



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