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14

The text does not use the same word to describe both of them, so in a sense the "burden of proof" is on the argument for association, not the argument for difference, no? The serpent is described as an Earthly creature (with consequences for others of its kind, as noted by @Richard), so "heavenly being disguised as (or possessing) an earthly being" seems ...


13

That's not feminine; that's masculine. These are "pausal forms", so when the preposition lamed plus 2 msc sg suffix would normally be lĕkā, in "pause" it is lāk -- which is the same form as the 2 fem sg, and thus the confusion. See Gesenius-Kautzsch-Cowley, Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar (2nd edn; Clarendon Press, 1910), at § 27n, p. 97 (last line of that ...


12

The problem is that the three friends, Zophar, Eliphaz and Bildad, claim that God always brings punishment to the wicked and blessings to the good. Their theology states that if something bad happens to someone, it must be because they did something bad. If something good happens, it must be because they did something good. Using this theology, they try to ...


10

Who are the morning stars? From the text, I would say the morning stars are the sons of God that are mentioned. This passage seemed to follow a common parallel format found in the surrounding text. Look at the repetitious nature of the surrounding passages for my reasoning: 5 Who determined its measurements—surely you know! Or who stretched the line ...


10

The events of Job 1 say "in that same hour", so that chapter appears to have occurred at the same time. Job 2 occurs at the next meeting between God and the Accuser, but there is no mention of the frequency with which those occurred. But, Job 2 says: And they sat with him on the ground seven days and seven nights, and no one spoke a word to him, for they ...


9

While I agree with Soldarnal's analysis, this question is interesting enough that I would like to play devil's advocate. I've been mulling over the issue all week so bear with my (overly-long) answer. God's Accuser The setup of Job is the Adversary looking for a way to discredit God: The Adversary answered the Lord, “Does Job not have good reason to ...


9

This is an intriguing interpretation, but there are a couple things that I think militate against it: First, Job 32:2-3 seems to frame the discussion that precedes it in terms similar to the traditional interpretation as concerning theodicy. Elihu is angry because Job has taken up the cause of his own justice rather than that of God's. He is also angry ...


8

At first glance it seemed strange to me as well. However, given that the context is the good things that occur to the wicked, and in the next verse (14) we see how the wicked take these things for granted, it makes sense that it would be a positive thing, and going down to sheol in a moment wouldn't be. The root is רגע , which aside for 'moment' can actually ...


8

The context at hand is not concerning the maidens, but concerning the ferocious creature of the sea, Leviathan. This is the key to understanding the context. There is no cynicism, but in fact grave awe. The word Leviathan (לִוְיָתָן) is only mentioned five times in the Hebrew Bible, and refers to either a ferocious creature of the sea, or to an angelic ...


7

Are Job's friends the voice of the Accuser? In my framework for understanding Job, in the context of justice, the men roughly represent: Job: The wisdom of Ecclesiastes (mis-applied) Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar: The wisdom of Proverbs (also mis-applied) Elihu: the voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Prepare the way of the Lord" Job identifies ...


7

Perhaps it's a case of YAPSM (Yet another primordial sea monster) in the Bible. In recollecting from the only secular scripture class I've taken, which you may take with a grain of salt if you wish, there's Leviathan and Behemoth which represent crocodiles and hippos accordingly. Rahab, is another sea monster, (s)he also makes her presence known in ...


7

It's actually quite difficult, sticking to just the Hebrew Scriptures, to link the two persons. The New Testament contains far more references to Satan - and, of course, Revelation 20:2 pretty explicitly links the two - but in the Hebrew Bible there are only three instances of the Satan/Adversary: Job 1-2; Zechariah 3:-12 and 1 Chronicles 21:1. Even at that, ...


6

In my framework for understanding Job, Elihu is an Elijah figure. He is the voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Prepare the way of the Lord" This is part of a wider Bible pattern of both: God finally arriving in person to judge (not just in the sense of 'judgement', but also in the sense of leadership and personal presence with his people). God being ...


6

If you read the text straight through without the division into chapters, chapter 28 seems to flow naturally from the end of 27 -- the chapter division almost seems to be in the middle of a thought. I don't know why the chapters were divided the way they were, but they are not in the original text. Chapters 29-31 read clearly as one discourse. So I don't ...


6

The question is really an issue of what kind of cosmology the authors of the various biblical books assume in the course of their writing. When we read the Hebrew scriptures, the few books that have anything to say on the subject never explicitly say 'the earth is flat'. But if we can determine the overall shape of the cosmos as the different writers ...


6

It's not a feminine pronoun (although it looks like one)! Lakh (לָךְ) in this case is a form of the male pronoun lekha known as "pausal," which because of its position as the final word of the verse. Pausal forms generally expand a shva or e-vowel into a qamatz; for example, at the end of Genesis 1:1 eretz becomes aretz. See for example the chart here, or ...


5

The Hebrew for the final clause is: וַיָּבוֹא גַם הַשָּׂטָן, בְּתוֹכָם. גַם means "also", so a straightforward reading suggests that the satan was not part of the group. We see another "exclusive gam" in Gen 33:7, where Yaakov's concubines (handmaids) approach Eisav and "gam Leah" -- Leah is not a handmaid but a wife. These are just two examples, ...


5

The reference to singing comes a few verses later: 4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare, if thou hast the understanding. 5 Who determined the measures thereof, if thou knowest? Or who stretched the line upon it? 6 Whereupon were the foundations thereof fastened? Or who laid the corner-stone thereof, 7 When the morning ...


5

The genre of Job The book of Job falls clearly in the category of wisdom literature: Wisdom literature is a genre of literature common in the Ancient Near East. This genre is characterized by sayings of wisdom intended to teach about divinity and about virtue. The key principle of wisdom literature is that while techniques of traditional story-telling ...


5

It's important to look at these passages in the context of the whole of the book of Job. At the beginning of the book we learn that he is exemplary and at the end of the book he is rewarded by God, so the question is what happened in between. The challenge made by ha-satan in the previous chapter is that Job will "blaspheme You to Your face". (It doesn't ...


4

I realise I'm a little late to the party, but in the interest of posterity and despite Ecclesiastes 1:15, I would like to answer all those comments and claims that the root רגע has no basis as "calm" or "peaceful" in the tanakh. I'm not sure this is the most natural reading of the verse or even the one I subscribe to, however it certainly has a very solid ...


4

Abstract Elihu continues the accusations of Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar, lacks their wisdom, and is beneath contempt. Structure of the dialogue The core of Job follows a strict order of speeches for three cycles: Job Eliphaz Job Bildad Job Zophar The basic content of Job's words is always the same: questioning God why the calamities of chapter 1 and ...


4

I was surprised by this translation of וְנִחַמְתִּי, because I generally think nacham in the sense of "comfort". However, BDB connects comforting to repentance: verb Niph`al be sorry, console, oneself, etc. (only in derived species) [...] be sorry, moved to pity, have compassion, for others be sorry, rue, suffer grief, repent, of one's own ...


4

An angel as a primeval enemy of humanity The Hebrew noun satan, along with related nouns and verbs, are semi-common in the Hebrew scriptures. These terms are used in a variety of contexts and refer to a variety of individuals. In Numbers 22.22,32, for example, it is an angel explicitly acting on God's behalf who is identified as a satan, meaning ...


3

From Wikipedia, Book of Job: The Talmudic tractate Bava Batra (15a-b) maintains that Job was written by Moses, although nowhere does it name its author. Other opinions in the Talmud ascribe it to the period of before the First Temple, the time of the patriarch Jacob, or King Ahasuerus. The Talmud cites a number of opinions about exactly when the events ...


3

The beauty of a young woman comes to us through our eyes, whereby we might be drawn into sin and adultery. Therefore, possibly making a covenant with our eyes is just a poetic way of saying: ‘I have agreed within myself, swore to myself and all the prime members involved, that I will not lustfully gaze after a maiden.’ One might say 'I made a covenant with ...


3

should these two characters be identified with each other or are they different beings altogether Would be like asking What is the relationship between the rate of traffic light over-runs in Maine and the homicide rate in NYC Traffic light over-runs and homicide are both infractions on society so I just can't resist drawing a straight line between ...


3

Yes, the adversary and the serpent are generally accepted by Christians to be the same being. The differences that you noted can be reconciled fairly easily, depending on the doctrinal stance from which you're viewing these books. From one stance, the Garden of Eden can be viewed as a metaphor and "the serpent" would not be an actual physical being. From ...


3

In sensus plenior there are four layers of meaning made possible by prophetic recapitulation. Simply said, there are four proper interpretations. The first is the literal speaking of a real occurrence with the historical Job. The second is in the voice of the Judge which speaks of God's viewpoint about the literal. The third speaks about Jesus in the ...


3

In the the Zohar (Kabbalah) Pinchas page 231a the meetings between God and the accuser are said to have taken place on the Day of Judgement, which is the Jewish new year, which would mean the meetings were every year. Rabbi Yehuda said to Rabbi Shimon, Let my master say some beautiful [secret] things about Rosh Hashanah. Rabbi Shimon opened by quoting: ...



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