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15

Good question - could take a book to answer! Here are some brief notes by way of a preliminary answer. The key phrase which unlocks (or veils?) identity is in v. 12: "O Lucifer, son of the morning!" Hebrew: הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר | hêlēl ben-šāḥar Greek: ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων | ho heōsphoros ho prōi anatellōn Grk trans.: the Day Star, which ...


8

Side note: This is an example of poetic verse where a lot is lost in translation. "I form light and create darkness" Yotzer or u'voreh choshekh - Just four words in the original Hebrew "I make well-being and create calamity" Oseh shalom u'voreh ra – also just four words in Hebrew "I am the LORD, who does all these things." Ani Adonai oseh kol eleh - ...


7

I have searched my electronic copy of Biblia Sacr JUXTA Vulgatam Clementinam and it seems in all three cases I could find, lucifer means the morning star (the planet Venus) or possibly just the day in one instance. It seems to be used as an image which suits both the Devil and Christ. It is only Capitalized as a personification in Isaiah where it seems to ...


7

Immediate Context The prophecy in Isaiah 9 seems primarily concerned with the survival of the throne of David in the kingdom of Judah (verse 9.7,21) under the threat of Syria and Israel (9.9,11-12,21). This fits the historic context of the eighth century BC, as well as the context of the immediately preceding chapters, Isaiah 7-8, which is concerned with ...


7

One consideration for translations is to distinguish translated names from the in-text explanations of names that we sometimes get (e.g. the explanations for the names of many of Yaakov's sons). A translation should never give the impression that the text explicitly assigns a name when it does not. So, for example, since "ha-satan" can mean many things, ...


6

The context of the two books gives an insight: In the Psalm, the Psalmist is saying that those who follow God (The Righteous) will flourish. The Righteous delight in the LORD (vs 4-5), they Praise the LORD (vs 1-3), etc. Isaiah on the other hand is a book of Judgement on Israel. Isaiah 57 looks at the fact that although Israel is chosen as God's people, ...


6

The NET Bible translator's notes: The precise meaning of לִּילִית (lilit) is unclear, though in this context the word certainly refers to some type of wild animal or bird. The word appears to be related to לַיְלָה (laylah, “night”). Some interpret it as the name of a female night demon, on the basis of an apparent Akkadian cognate used as the name of a ...


6

Hebrew The entire English phrase "Those who wait upon" (or "Those who wait for") is translated from one word: vekovye (וְקֹויֵ֤). This word finds its root in Hebrew qavah. If we look at the Strong's entry for this word, we see this: to wait, look for, hope, expect (Qal) waiting (participle) (Piel) to wait or look eagerly for to ...


6

This answer addresses the five books of Moses (torah), not the whole of tanakh (and nothing from the additional Christian scriptures). The most popular multi-author theory is the Documentary Hypothesis, which postulates four sources (not authors) -- J, E, P, and D -- and a redactor. Richard Friedman's book Who Wrote the Bible? is an accessible, ...


5

There is, as Richard points out, a whole Wikipedia page dedicated to the subject which is far superior to my quick answer down here. Topheth is probably synonymous with the valley of Hinnom (Jer 7:32), which is exactly that valley south of Jerusalem where children was sacrificed to Moloech. So you are right when associating this with Gehenna/Hell. The ...


5

Identifying the Servant Yisra'el in Isa. 49:3 The suffering servant in Isaiah 49:3 cannot be the nation of Israel. It is certainly true that the prophet Isaiah identifies the servant in Isa. 49:3 by the name "Yisra'el" when he writes, 3 And said to me, "You are my servant, O' Yisra'el, in whom I will be glorified." וַיֹּאמֶר לִי עַבְדִּי־אָתָּה ...


5

Isaiah 52:13-53:12 constitutes what is considered the fourth Servant song. The others are Isaiah 42:1-9, Isaiah 49:1-13, and Isaiah 50:4-9. Also, some consider Isaiah 61:1-3 a fifth Servant song, though the word "servant" is not used there. All of these songs speak of a Servant called by God to lead the nations. There is no clear referant within Isaiah ...


5

To say that "God is the author" of the Bible is not entirely a correct statement of the Christian position. Christians do not believe that God dictated the words of the Bible, in the way that Islam believes about the Koran. The Catholic and Protestant positions are summarized here. To induce a person to write is not to take on oneself the responsibility ...


5

Option 1 is almost certainly what Isaiah meant El-Gibbor strongly parallels names like Ishmael ("God has hearkened") and Elizabeth ("God's promise"). According to a footnote in the NET Bible: גִּבּוֹר (gibbor) is probably an attributive adjective (“mighty God”), though one might translate “God is a warrior” or “God is mighty.” Scholars have interpreted ...


5

All translation is based on an understanding of the underlying text, and so is to a greater or lesser extent doctrinal in nature. Most of the time it doesn't matter. But these things are really a matter of opinion. The Hebrew is invariant, the transliteration is of the Hebrew that would be translated. I suspect that the Jewish translation is more motivated ...


4

I think the "meaning" of this word in the context is that Yahweh (God) will lift the curse from the ground. The thorns and thistles (nettles) are the result of the curse on the ground. Isaiah is prophesying that there will be a time when these products of the curse of the ground will be removed, and then substituted with "living" plants that actually bear ...


4

I guess we are into Bible trivia here but it is an unidentified desert plant. It apparently comes from the root word סָרַף which means to burn. Therefore it was probably a prickly bush/plant that 'burned' when one was pricked by it. It is not used anywhere else in the Bible.


4

That is a good question, Stephen. Isaiah does not give many details, but he also does not claim that God told him to go in to this woman. He only claims that God provided the name for the child. There are a few things to consider: Isaiah was told to take his son with him in the previous chapter (Isaiah 7:3), which should indicate that he did have a wife. ...


4

The answer isn't difficult if you get the translation right. The translation used in the question is skewed to fit with the Christian image that G-d only creates good. That is not Isaiah's lesson. He is teaching that there is only one G-d and that G-d creates all things. The question here makes that analysis difficult because it mistranslates a single, ...


4

The Hebrew uses masculine grammar to talk about the servant. As noted by HebrewHammer, the word we would expect if singular is לו. The word here, לָמוֹ, is of unclear number. However, it doesn't actually matter -- this refers to a group (the nation of Israel), which can be referred to as either plural or singular. Throughout Tanakh we see singular ...


4

Most Jewish people interpret this chapter as a continuation of the personification of the nation of Israel from the previous chapter. The Targum of Jonathan, which is a midrashic commentary in the form of a loose translation, explains this chapter as having two separate subjects. The first, receives all the exaltation, that is the Moshiac. The second, who ...


4

Judgment and remnant Isaiah has been prophesying about judgment coming upon Israel as a result of her wickedness. Dr. Constable has this to say: The prophet had just described Assyria cut down like a forest of trees (10:15-19, 33-34). Likewise, Israel would have only a remnant left after God finished judging her (10:20-23; cf. 6:11-13). Now he ...


3

When one sleeps, it actually appears like the person is a corpse. (When I sleep, I snore, but that is different.) When my children were very, very young and sleeping in the crib, I would actually nudge them to ensure they were not dead, because in sleep the resemblance is almost exactly akin to death (except for those who snore like me). When the Bible ...


3

"The name of YHVH comes from afar" seems puzzling; YHVH may come from afar, but what does it mean for his name to do so? Rashi, the medieval compiler of rabbinic tradition, writes the following: the Name of the Lord: His might, which will be for Him as a name, viz., what He will do to Sennacherib. He does not give a source, but this interpretation is ...


3

In context, the poetic parallelism indicates 'daughter of Zion' is intended to be read synonymously with 'Jerusalem'. Here is Isaiah 52.1-2 from the ESV, with the chiastic parallelism marked: A - ​​​​​​​Awake, awake, put on your strength, O Zion; B - put on your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city; C - for there shall no more come into you the ...


3

The previous verse says it all, “for I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me,” “I make known the end from the beginning” is a declaration of His Omnipotence since He is not restricted by time as we are instead He lives in eternity and not time, His Omnipresence since He is all places at all times He is literally in the ...


3

Often, but not always, a title given to and associated with God will be written as two words in Hebrew. They might separate the words with a makkeph, which looks like a dash but is at the top of the line instead of the middle (technically, this makes the words one in Hebrew and shifts the accent). If there is no makkeph, the words will be written as two ...


2

@Richard A bit of reading of some commentators on the subject does indicate that pride is the cause. A significant emissary was visiting King Hezekiah and it appears that by showing the Babylonians everything he had, Hezekiah was trying to impress them - putting stock in his relationship with them, over his relationship with God. He should have shown more ...


2

The question is apparently, "Why does the prophet use something rare and valuable that is used in purification ceremonies as a metaphor for sins?" The first answer is that the scarlet dye was the most permanent pigment then known. Once dyed, it could not be totally bleached out, a stain always remained. In this respect, the metaphor comes to say, "Even if ...


2

The explanation of this maiden (virgin mother) requires that we integrate three events that occurred in the same period. The first event was the meeting of Isaiah with Ahaz "at the end of the conduit of the upper pool, on the highway to the Washer's field" (Isaiah 7:3). Isaiah's son was in attendance, and his name was A-Remnant-Shall-Return ...



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