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It is highly unlikely Hosea is using a literary device. First, there were two real golden calves in Israel the people worshipped. When the nation divided, Jeroboam, the first king of Israel made two golden calves: Therefore the king asked advice, made two calves of gold, and said to the people, “It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are ...


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The Immediate Context The ESV translation highlights the language a bit better here I feel [I did restructure the second section slightly]: In the first we see Jacob moving out, working for his bride and then guarding her (by guarding sheep). In the next we see God moving in to do the work of bringing Israel out of Egypt, securing Israel as his bride, ...


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The Idea in Brief The Masoretic Text and Babylonian Talmud provide compelling insights. First, the Masoretic Text provides structure through the cantillation marks and accents to help understand how the words related one to another. In this respect, the cantillation and accent marks provide no direct relationship between the word אָדָם (Adam) and the word ...


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OP has already done a fine job in identifying the problem, and setting out solutions. The majority of modern commentators take ...ʾādām here as a reference to a place name, "Adam" (as in Joshua 3:16, as noted by OP). The notion that the following šām "there" requires a place-name as antecedent, and that the only viable candidate is ...ʾādām, is widely found ...


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I wouldn't necessarily read a direct reference to Deuteronomy 32. The statement in 1:9 is a negation of the common language of covenant. The positive phrasing is common in Scripture: Exodus 6:7 I will take you as my own people, and I will be your God. Leviticus 26:12 And I will walk among you and will be your God, and you shall be my people. ...


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It is Possible, but Debated Duane Garrett discusses this in his entry about the verse in Hosea, Joel, Vol. 19A, The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1997) He states: Some scholars argue that the Hebrew actually means “And I am not ‘I AM’ to you.” In other words, they argue that with these words God has ...


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I'm not too familiar with Koine Greek (except getting a grade C for introductory Koine Greek in Bible school). As well as, since the septuagint is not dependable translation, and should not be used authoritatively. I can only comment better on the Hebrew. Deut 32:21 (I placed a hyphen to separate the pronouns) הם קנאו-ני בלא אל The word-literal ...



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