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12

Hosea Translation Difficulties There are a lot of textual issues that must be dealt with when translating the book of Hosea.1 The textual problems in Hosea are virtually unparalleled in the OT. The Masoretic Text (MT), represented by the Leningrad Codex (c. A.D. 1008), which served as the basis for both BHK and BHS, and the Aleppo Codex (c. A.D. ...


9

My translation from the beginning of 13: 1When Ephraim speaks they tremble, For he's a prince in Israel, [reading nasi instead of nasa] But he's guilty of Baal worship, he's dead. 2And now they continue to sin, they made an image from silver, to fit their own idolatrous ideas, the whole thing is a work of craftsmen, of them it is said, ...


7

This sermon by Brett Mahlen (which I strongly recommend and exhort you to listen to) has an excellent discussion of this, and is the basis of my answer. Where Were They? Admah and Zeboiim were the little towns outside of Sodom and Gomorroh, which were burned up with the larger cities when the sulfury fire of God fell from heaven in judgment on them ...


7

This would take a book to answer well, but here's the gist: Israel out of Egypt? Israel in the Pentateuch was typological of God's people (cf. 1 Cor. 10) (God's people would have to leave "Egypt", pass through the "water", follow God through the "wilderness", live by God's "law", etc.) Israel failed to actually be God's people (cf. Hos. 11 and the rest ...


6

No, the prophet is not teaching that the Israelites are in sin because they are drinking wine. The picture is not one where everyone is sitting down to a nice meal together and giving thanks to God, but God is angry because they had a little wine. The picture is not temperance, but intemperance (esp. 4:18). It is a picture of the Israelites engaged in ...


6

Context Hosea 3:4 is part of a brief "reprise" of the "prophet-as-symbol" in his relationship with an unfaithful woman/spouse. (The terms of their relationship and the connection between Hosea 1 and 3 are matters of discussion, even dispute, among interpreters.) Here it appears to be part of a redemption scene, as the woman is taken into the prophet's ...


6

Hosea 10.8 While a number of the Hebrew prophetic books look at neighboring nations, the entirety of the book of Hosea is concerned with one subject: the tumultuous relationship between God and Israel. The book opens with God instructing Hosea to marry a prostitute, with her adultery being used as an illustration of Israel's faithlessness to God, ...


5

The NET notes are helpful here: The figure of crying out to the mountains ‘Fall on us!’ (appealing to creation itself to hide them from God’s wrath), means that a time will come when people will feel they are better off dead (Hos 10:8). The "better off dead" sense comes across in both Luke and Hosea (Jesus seems to be repeating the prophecy), but the ...


5

The next verse suggests to me that the first interpretation is correct. The prophet is the watchman of Ephraim with my God; yet a fowler's snare is on all his ways,     and hatred in the house of his God. This puts the prophet in a positive light from God's point of view (he is a watchman with God) and gives a negative view of ...


5

My sense is that the Hebrew here is poetic and ambiguous. However, I think the verse should not be understood as referring to the time period in Egypt before the Exodus. Instead, the verse references God taking his people out of Egypt and the forty years spent in the desert/wilderness prior to their entrance into the land of Israel. Hosea 13:4-5 is similar ...


5

The usage of Hosea 11:1 in Matthew 2:15 is consistent with the "drash" reading of scripture that was accepted among the dominant Pharisaic Jewish tradition at the time of Jesus. See this explanation of "drash" and its relationship to context in the Wikipedia article on "pshat" [emphasis is mine]: Definitions of Peshat also note the importance of ...


5

There were many things that Matthew did not understand about the ministry of Christ until after Jesus death, burial, resurrection, and ascension. The references that the prophets made about the Messiah were likely high on that list. The beauty of most of the references about the messiah is that they were already understood in the historical context which ...


4

Allepo Codex and Masoretic, Hos 4:10: Achlu v'lo yisbau / They ate and were not satisfied hiznu v'lo yiphrotsu / They whored but did not multiply ci et YHWH azavu lishmor / because YHWH they abandoned to keep (follow) Hos 4:11 Znut v'yayyin v'tirosh / Whoring and wine and fresh wine yikach lev / will take away the heart (attention or understanding) ...


4

The Hebrew of "raisin cakes" is אֲשִׁישֵׁ֥י עֲנָבִֽים Strong's: 809, 6025. The old rendering is "flagons of wine" (KJV). If that interpretation is taken, then he is criticizing their drunkenness, as elsewhere in Hosea. Calvin and Henry both follow the flagon translation. However, this appears to be a mistranslation; the word seems to come from a root ...


4

2. And now, they continue to sin, and they have made for themselves a molten image from their silver according to their pattern, deities, all of it the work of craftsmen; to them say, "Those who sacrifice man may kiss the calves." And now: Jehu’s dynasty, who saw all this, continue to sin. according to their pattern: Heb. ...


3

The link to Strong H809 in Kazark's answer brings three other references: II Sam 6:19 I Chron 16:3 Song 5:2 In addition see Isaiah 16:7. None of the contexts gives a clearer idea of what "ashishim" are. Different words but similar general imagery to Hosea 3:1 in Amos 6:6 provided a basis for some commentators. "anavim" are grapes, but in this context ...


3

I found this in Rashi's Commentary; nor pillar: The pillar of Baal in Samaria of the kings of Israel מַצֵּבָה (matstsebah) is translated "pillar", and the word is used in 32 occurrences. Since Hosea probably prophesied during the time of the Assyrian Dispersion; see here, he would have seen the 'pillar' of Baal which is described in 2 Kings 10:27, ...


3

It is highly unlikely Hosea is using a literary device. First, there were two real golden calves in Israel the people worshipped. When the nation divided, Jeroboam, the first king of Israel made two golden calves: Therefore the king asked advice, made two calves of gold, and said to the people, “It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are ...


3

The simple meaning ("pshat") of the oral tradition is "They were unfaithful to the LORD and the resulting births were illegitimate. They will be consumed in a single month, together with their possessions". So what's the problem? It starts with "chodesh", which can mean "month" referring to some particular month such as next month, or the month of tamuz ...


3

Addendum to Kazark: There is an alliteration in the Hebrew. Each of the first four lines starts with the letter aleph. Each of the last words in each line have an aleph, in the first syllable of "Ephraim" and "Adamah" (lines 1 and 3), and in the last syllable of "Israel" and "Zeboiim" (lines 2 and 4). This would not work with "Sodom" and "Gamorrah". As the ...


3

The Hebrew word translated as "beauty" is "hod", which would be better translated as "glory" or "majesty". Same word used in Psalms 96:6 (beginning of verse), Psalms 104:1, Psalms 111:3, Isaiah 30:30, Job 40:10, I Chron 29:11 and many other places. Remember, we were farmers then, and to a farmer, even a corn stalk can be "glorious". The olive has the ...


3

The NET Bible notes: Beth Aven means “house of wickedness” in Hebrew; it is a polemic reference to “Bethel,” which means “house of God.” Cf. CEV “at sinful Bethel.” Bethel was also a worship center established by Jeroboam for the people of the Northern Kingdom. Hosea seems to be referring to the same place where a golden calf was worshiped, sacrifices ...


3

The Immediate Context The ESV translation highlights the language a bit better here I feel [I did restructure the second section slightly]: In the first we see Jacob moving out, working for his bride and then guarding her (by guarding sheep). In the next we see God moving in to do the work of bringing Israel out of Egypt, securing Israel as his bride, ...


2

While other people have suggested that it is the prophet himself speaking - in which case the passage shouldn't be in quotes - it seems best to me to understand the speaker to be God quoting Ephraim and Judah after he has carried through with the things prophesied at the end of chapter 5. God speaking in verse 5:14 says: For I will be like a lion to ...


2

I do not think the meaning of the name Shechem has any bearing on the text. The name seems to come from its shape in the hills surrounding it. Rather the 'history' and 'location' of the city among the poeople holds the answer. First, the road to Shechem from Bethel was like a highway, or main road that robbers would use to attack people: And they said, ...


2

I see what you are getting at. In the ESV it does seem to speak just the way you say (my expanded paraphrase): Shall I save these wicked people from Sheol? (Of course not!) Shall I redeem them from Death (Of course not!) ...But speaking of ‘redeem’ I will insert this confusing prophecy. For although I said ‘Of course not!' I will reject my people ...


2

From the clutches of the grave I would ransom them, from death I would redeem them; I will be your words of death; I will decree the grave upon you. Remorse shall be hidden from My eyes. -From the Complete Jewish Bible I will ransom them from the power of the grave; I will redeem them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O grave, I will ...


2

OP has already done a fine job in identifying the problem, and setting out solutions. The majority of modern commentators take ...ʾādām here as a reference to a place name, "Adam" (as in Joshua 3:16, as noted by OP). The notion that the following šām "there" requires a place-name as antecedent, and that the only viable candidate is ...ʾādām, is widely found ...


2

The intent is simply "and your verdict will be clear for all to see". The idiom is "hotsi l'or" - literally to bring to light. In this verse the word order is reversed for poetic effect, "u'mishpatecha or yetse" (that's a lot of meaning packet into only three words and a conjunctive!). In modern Hebrew "l'hotsi l'or" means to publish, as in to publish an ...


2

The Idea in Brief The Masoretic Text and Babylonian Talmud provide compelling insights. First, the Masoretic Text provides structure through the cantillation marks and accents to help understand how the words related one to another. In this respect, the cantillation and accent marks provide no direct relationship between the word אָדָם (Adam) and the word ...



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