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The Phrasing is Not a Direct Comment on Jesus being over 40 Years Old Irenaeus is in error with his logic here, partly because he is missing the context and particular significance of the statement. Background Rather than being a direct comment on Jesus' age (i.e. over 40 years old), the number 50 is stated because of its significance in Levitical ...


8

I don't know of any scholar who denies that Hammurabi wrote a code of laws before Moses received the Ten Commandments and the accompanying law. So if the question is: Did Moses invent the idea of having a written code of laws, the answer is clearly "no". But if the question is: Were the specific set of laws in the Ten Commandments et al not really written ...


7

There are several creation accounts in antiquity from two main areas in the fertile crescent; Babylon/Sumer and Egypt. I will attempt to summarize and compare/contrast points of each creation myth with Genesis, so I will apologize at the outset to readers for the long answer. I'm sure the OP did not realize what a tall order this was, and as curiousdannii ...


6

There are a number of indicators: Themes In the texts in Chapter 11 and earlier, all of the stories are about God's punishment of mankind. While the theme of salvation is present in these texts, there is also a theme of the depravity of mankind and their continual fall from grace. This theme isn't really present in the texts after Chapter 11 - only the ...


6

To discern what constitutes a "primary" source requires asking some research question or other: a "primary source" is any evidence which bears on the question's answer or solution; a "secondary source" is any assessment (or interpretation) of that evidence. In the absence of such a question (and subsequent argument in attempting to answer it), nothing or ...


6

Paul state after his conversion that he is still Pharisee on two occasions Acts 23:6 Now when Paul perceived that one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, “Brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. It is with respect to the hope and the resurrection of the dead that I am on trial.” Phil 3:5 ...


4

A typical 1st century family home in Palestine was not one room but several rooms, on one or two floors, around a common open courtyard. Each room opened to the central space, so one lampstand in the central courtyard could shine into all the rooms of the house. The courtyard architectural type is well documented. The Neolithic site of Sha'ar HaGolan on ...


4

The idea in brief A recent (2015) work, The First Nativity (Part II): History and Theology of Our Incarnate Lord and Savior by Joseph David Rhodes contains a good discussion of Neri. In short, the hypothesis is that Neri was the biological father of Shealtiel while Jeconiah was his legal father. The idea is not entirely new (the following image is from ...


3

Aaron, Eleazar and Ithamar were specifically told not to rend their clothing in mourning for Nadab and Abihu when the Lord killed them for bringing profane fire to the Tabernacle: "Then Moses said to Aaron and to his sons Eleazar and Ithamar, “Do not uncover your heads nor tear your clothes, so that you will not die and that He will not become wrathful ...


3

It seems that the Romans initially allowed the Jewish authorities to exercise capital punishment, but withdrew the privilege some time during Jesus' life. The historian Josephus writes of an instance in which stonings occurred, probably around the year 62 CE. The short version is as follows: The Roman prefect of Judæa, a man named Porcius Festus, died ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Creation myth of Ptah The creation myth of Ptah comes from Memphis which was created as the capitol city for Egypt during the Old Kingdom period by Pharaoh Menes. During the 26th dynasty (672BCE–525BCE; the late period) of Egypt, the Shabaka stone was ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Ogdoad of Hermopolis The creation myth of the Ogdoad is the oldest creation myth and It is very difficult to study because it is not contained in single volumes like all of the Babylonian myths. Instead, this myth is pieced together from multiple sources of ...


3

Tertulian (being a Roman) would have used a Roman calendar system of dating reigns of emperors. So, the part year of AD 14 would have been considered Tiberius' accession, and AD 15 would have been year 1, and so on. Hence the Lord would have been revealed in AD 26. It would have referred to his baptism in the year that John began baptising, and by the time ...


3

Early period The story of the standardization of the Hebrew Bible begins in late second Temple times, as evidenced by the Talmud (Ketubot 106a) attesting to scribes that were paid by the Temple to periodically compare the official scrolls to other copies and make corrections. Before this time, it is evident that significant variation in copies existed as ...


3

Jesus tells a parable that is consistent with the practice: And a certain poor man, Lazarus by name, had been put at his gate— having been covered-with-sores, and desiring to be filled-to-satisfaction by the things falling (πιπτόντων) from the table of the rich man. Even indeed the dogs coming were licking his sores. (Luke 16:19-21 DLNT) The word fell ...


3

A very important first-century Christian writing is the Didache (Didache ton apostolon), ‘The Teaching of the Apostles’ = subsequently ‘The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles’. The first 6 chapters form a group usually designated Duae Viae, which most scholars see as pre-Christian. The next 5 chapters contain instructions for community services and prayers, ...


2

The Son of a ‘Canaanitish’ Woman The list of Simeon’s sons in Gen.46:10 states that the last named son, Shaul (or Saul), was “the son of a Canaanite woman”. Shaul’s designation is unique among Simeon’s sons whose mothers are not otherwise identified, unique even among Jacob’s 12 sons and many grandsons named in the family record as they arrived in Egypt ...


2

Did Jericho "deserve" destruction? The biblical story of the fall of Jericho in Joshua 6 offers no explanation or justification for the sack of the city and slaughter of all but a handful of its residents. Jericho was the easternmost large city north of the Dead Sea, and apparently by sole virtue of its geography it was the first of dozens of cities and ...


2

The Curse on Jericho: a Personal Theodicy? [NOTE: An earlier version of the question suggested Joshua's curse was central to the OP concern. While not directly addressing the revised question, this answer still offers helpful background.] Joshua’s curse on the rebuilder of Jericho’s fortifications is unique in the Hebrew Bible, and as the OP's question ...


2

One thing is sure – Augustus died in AD 14 and Tiberius succeeded him. From that anchor point, we must resolve the ‘contradiction’ between Luke and Tertulian by concluding that: Either Luke or Tertulian was mistaken, (or) Both are right, but they begin counting from different start-points. I believe the latter option - Tertulian counts from AD 14, and ...


2

My persuasion is that the Masoret (with mitigated revision due from Dead Sea Scrolls) is the only biblically authoritative text for the books Genesis to Malakhi. It is a mistake and even pointless to think about English/Latin grammatical concepts in order to accurately resolve the actual intention of the Hebrew text. To map Hebrew grammatical elements to ...


2

Definitions The question is "interested in the terms 'primary' and 'secondary' in the technical sense they would be used by a professional historian." Wikipedia defines primary sources as original materials that have not been altered or distorted in any way. In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or ...


2

E. G. Richards says in Mapping Time, page 221, that references to any sort of calendar in the books of the Old Testament originating from before the Babylonian Exile are rare. Etymologies strongly suggest that it was tied to the seasonal year with a year that began in the autumn and was thus probably lunisolar, with months intercalated from time to time. ...


2

We can not do this by comparing the dates of the oldest extant manuscripts/tablets of Genesis and Enuma Elish, because all we have in both cases are copies of copies. However, we can examine the Enuma Elish story to establish what period is referred to. Leonard W. King (Enuma Elish, pages LXXII-LXXX) says of the actual tablets inscribed with portions of the ...


2

This seems to paint doctors in a somewhat negative light to say that she suffered under their care. That is one reading of the text but it is not the only one. Almost all English translations allow that reading, with the only exception I can find being the Weymouth New Testament: and had undergone many different treatments under a number of doctors ...


1

Jacob is correct that the audience is somewhat of a mystery (though we do know quite a bit about them), but incorrect that this leaves us unable to answer your question. The New Covenant believers addressed in Hebrews met in homes (as did every other New Covenant congregation prior to the 3rd century). They met over a meal, sometimes called the "love ...


1

Im going to go out on a limb and say no we don't know where the Christians in Hebrews 10:25 had their assemblies. There appears to be no internal or external evidence to suggest this passage implies a particular type or size of meeting. The reason for this answer is that reputable commentaries aren't even on agreement on the matter of who Hebrews was ...


1

I can't seem to locate the passage but if memory serves the Anchor Bible volume "Joshua" reported that archaeology showed that there was a wasting disease in the area. Skeletal remains were found distorted. My memory isn't what it used to be so take that with a grain of salt. However, this is held forth by others as a legitimate reason: the STDs and ...


1

Although one of the oldest cities in the ancient world, Jericho was not continuously occupied up until Israelite times. Ian Wilson says, in Before the Flood, pages 127-128, that Jericho's Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture thrived on a mix of agriculture and hunting. Whether or not the neolithic people who lived in Jericho were Semitic people related to the the ...


1

It is said in 2 Kings 16:20 this 20 Ahaz rested with his ancestors and was buried with them in the City of David. And Hezekiah his son succeeded him as king. (Emphasis Mine) Things were much different at that time, so it is very probable that yes, Ahaz had a son at the age of just 11.



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