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17

The (relatively) small amount of bronze needed to make that serpent/snake (or נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת nĕḥaš nĕḥōšet) in the story of Num 21:4-9,1 even if it was as large as the monument now on Mount Nebo in Jordan,... ...would still have been quite small compared to the amount of bronze (let alone silver and gold) needed to make the utensils required for the ...


10

No. The tetragrammaton was not used in Jesus' time. Faithful Jews would avoid saying it so as to not transgress the third commandment. The most common circumlocution was "Lord" (Andonai in Hebrew or Kurios in Greek), though he might also be referred to simply as "Heaven." In answer to Jesus using El from the cross. El is the common word for God from all ...


8

I don't know the method that Wayne Grudem used. On possible method is Levenshtein Distance, which measures the number of insertions, deletions, and subsitutions needed to convert one text to another. In order to test the method and compare it with the 92% found in the chart, I ran the first chapter of Genesis (without verse numbers) through an online ...


8

The position in the question, that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is not original to Matthew 28:19 is held today by very few scholars. Those that do point to a quotation from the early church historian Eusebius. In Demonstratio 3.6, he replaces "name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" with "my name." This is then taken as a direct quote from the copy of ...


8

The short answer to your questions is that none of these books have survived. This is not surprising; a very large number of books existed in the ancient world of which only a tiny minority have been preserved till now. But specifically to your first example: the Greek historian Ctesias claimed to have known the royal notebooks (basilikaì diphthérai), “in ...


7

The ancient Hebrews used a lunar calendar; each month began with the sighting of the new crescent, and continued until the next sighting, which means that approximately half of the months had 29 days, and approximately half had 30. In order to keep the months in the correct seasons the Hebrews (like the Babylonians, Greeks etc.) must have practiced some form ...


7

Jesus spoke primarily Aramaic followed by Hebrew and Greek. Since most of the new testament was written in greek, you will probably never find it recorded that Jesus said "YHWH" in scriptures. This doesn't mean he didn't say it, it's just a translation thing. Furthermore, it was Hebrew tradition to interpose the name Adonai inside of "YHWH" which is ...


7

Before anything, though, I must say that no, king Joash would not know that he must strike the ground five or six times. But, he really should have did that. All verse emphasis mine. First of all, we would have to look at the reason why Elisha would be angry at an answer to a seemingly minuscule command, 2 Kings 13:14 (NKJV) 14 Elisha had become ...


7

They were primarily bi-lingual Note: unattributed links are to general knowledge found on Wikipedia and primarily for the historical background. Alexander the Great made his conquests during the early 4th c. BC, at which time Hellenization first occurred in the area (which in part actively sought the teaching of the Greek language). The Celtic invasion of ...


6

Yes, Baptism is well attested in Jewish sources dating from both before and after Christ. These are both for mainstream Judaism and sectarian. From before Jesus, one finds clear references to baptism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. See for example, 1QS (The Community Rule) and 4Q274-276 (The Purity Texts). From sources dating after Jesus (but portraying ...


6

The practice is not well understood, although it has long been claimed to be part of indigenous culture from time immemorial (well, from Ezekiel's time,1 anyway!) up to the present day. From antiquity, the evidence from Galen is often cited (see, e.g., Keil below). It comes up in his De sanitate tuenda, often known in English as "Galen's Hygiene". The ...


6

The question of how "adoption" as used metaphorically by Paul relates to modern notions of adoption is not as important as comparing it to other ancient understandings. Once this is in place, however, the further comparison of the concept from Roman antiquity with modernity (in industrialized West, by implication?) can benefit from those findings. The Texts ...


5

The view one takes on the credibility of the assertion is going to depend largely on one's presuppositions and level of allowance for the Bible text to speak for itself. If the Torah (Law, i.e. "teaching" is the idea in Hebrew, not just the actual commands and prohibitions), which includes Genesis, was formed contra what critical scholars claim, and instead ...


5

Here are the key lines of Ezekiel 29:3 in Hebrew: הִנְנִי עָלֶיךָ פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם hinĕnî ʿāleykā parʿōh melek-miṣrayim (Behold I am against you, Pharaoh, king of Egypt,) הַתַּנִּים הַגָּדוֹל הָרֹבֵץ בְּתוֹךְ יְאֹרָיו hattannîm haggadōl hārōbēṣ bĕtôk yĕʾōra(y)w (the great dragon who lies in the midst of his rivers...) Textual ...


5

I wanted to clear up the ambiguities the other answers have left around. Moses is reviewing the laws that were originally given in Exodus and Leviticus. This law is originally found in Exodus 22:16-17 (NKJV): If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife. If her father ...


5

Suzerain covenants Modern contracts typically follow a certain format: the parties of the contract are identified, the terms and conditions are defined, certain penalties are defined, and the parties (and witnesses, if necessary) sign their agreement. There is a similarly formatted ancient Near Eastern contract, called a suzerain covenant, though these ...


5

Indisputable? I agree with Frank Luke's comment, further adding that using such a term does technically make the question unanswerable (because, as Frank noted, people dispute things that ought not be). Probable Testimony Circa 60-70 A.D. The earliest probable reference to Luke's gospel is by the apostle Paul himself in 1 Tim 5:18, circa mid 60's A.D. ...


5

OP: So, can the Bible's relative chronology be translated into absolute dates? In a word, no. The converse, however, is possible, and I take it this is what is intended from the way the question proceeds: OP: What I am looking for are key biblical events that are verified by independent, extra-biblical sources. From such 'anchors', are we able to ...


4

The Masoretic text of the phrase translated "young as he was" (NIV) and "the child was very young" (VDC) translates literally as "and the boy [was] a boy." This phrase is והנער נער. Both translations are in agreement that it indicates the youngness of Samuel. However, other translations assume a textual problem here. They conclude that the repetition of ...


4

This theory is pretty credible. There a great deal of scholars which entertain this idea who are collectively known as Panbabylonists. This seems to raise the ire of many purists who would like to believe that Genesis was influenced by God alone. In my opinion, however many fail to consider the idea that perhaps sections of Genesis were not derived from ...


4

The Essenes (headquartered in Qumran) used a solar calendar like the one described in Jubilees and 1 Enoch. Here, each of the twelve months had 30 days except for the last month of each quarter which had 31. This was a marked difference from the calendars of the mainstream Jews, and to set themselves apart is why they used this calendar.1 In one of their ...


4

Most people interpret these as the signs of later editors. Some potential editors are Moses updating Genesis, Samuel updating the books of the Law, Joshua and Judges, and perhaps some of the later court historians updating the earlier kingly narratives. Most of the time we don't know exactly who wrote what or when, but these phrases are referring to when ...


4

Rashi cites the Midrash Bereshit Rabba (80:11) as saying that this was a son of Simeon with his sister Dena. the son of the Canaanitess: The son of Dinah, who had been possessed by a Canaanite. When they killed Shechem, Dinah did not want to leave until Simeon swore to her that he would marry her -[Gen. Rabbah (80:11)]. The Midrash Bereshit Rabba cites ...


3

With any theory like this its just as credible that the influence goes the other way. The argument that the Sumerians could not influence the Hebrews directly is bunk, in that perhaps they could not directly influence the author of Genesis, but since they would have been contemporary with Abraham they could have influenced the stream of Hebrew thought at an ...


3

I think you misunderstand what factors cause a person to become ritually impure and the dietary laws known as kashrut. The crow/raven is in a class of birds that are "unclean" meaning that they are not suitable for eating. The Torah's list of clean birds is limited to birds who are not birds of prey and those who are not scavengers, like the crow. These we ...


3

The sizes didn't represent anything special themselves, but if you know them, then you know that this "image of gold" was not a mere statue - from the given proportions (10:1 ratio) you could conclude that it was an obelisk. Obelisks in ancient world could have special meanings and purposes. Some of them were considered "sacred pillars". Pliny the Elder in ...


3

No Failure of Theory Simply for Being on a Scroll Examine carefully the Isaiah scroll. About every three to four columns there is stitching of the pieces of parchment together. Codices are thus not the only documents with "leafs" (so to speak). It is possible for a section of a scroll to have separated at such a stitch point. Additionally The end of a ...


2

As my comments to Frank Luke's answer indicate, I strongly disagree with him. He cites Sotah 22b as source for a description of "what is a Pharisee" without realizing that this is not a term the rabbis used to describe themselves. A perush in that context is someone who separates themselves or an ascetic. The description there is talking about five ...


2

Yes, I believe we should assume that the ancient Hebrew year averaged out to 365.24 days, with some years of 354 days and some of 384 days. Although the Bible does not explicitly mention intercalation (an added month), it is inferred in the name meaning of the first month of Abib. Abib simply means "tender, green ears" and refers to the ripening of the ...



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