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13

Suzerain covenants Modern contracts typically follow a certain format: the parties of the contract are identified, the terms and conditions are defined, certain penalties are defined, and the parties (and witnesses, if necessary) sign their agreement. There is a similarly formatted ancient Near Eastern contract, called a suzerain covenant, though these ...


10

The Phrasing is Not a Direct Comment on Jesus being over 40 Years Old Irenaeus is in error with his logic here, partly because he is missing the context and particular significance of the statement. Background Rather than being a direct comment on Jesus' age (i.e. over 40 years old), the number 50 is stated because of its significance in Levitical ...


8

I don't know of any scholar who denies that Hammurabi wrote a code of laws before Moses received the Ten Commandments and the accompanying law. So if the question is: Did Moses invent the idea of having a written code of laws, the answer is clearly "no". But if the question is: Were the specific set of laws in the Ten Commandments et al not really written ...


6

OP: So, can the Bible's relative chronology be translated into absolute dates? In a word, no. The converse, however, is possible, and I take it this is what is intended from the way the question proceeds: OP: What I am looking for are key biblical events that are verified by independent, extra-biblical sources. From such 'anchors', are we able to ...


6

There are several creation accounts in antiquity from two main areas in the fertile crescent; Babylon/Sumer and Egypt. I will attempt to summarize and compare/contrast points of each creation myth with Genesis, so I will apologize at the outset to readers for the long answer. I'm sure the OP did not realize what a tall order this was, and as curiousdannii ...


6

There are a number of indicators: Themes In the texts in Chapter 11 and earlier, all of the stories are about God's punishment of mankind. While the theme of salvation is present in these texts, there is also a theme of the depravity of mankind and their continual fall from grace. This theme isn't really present in the texts after Chapter 11 - only the ...


6

To discern what constitutes a "primary" source requires asking some research question or other: a "primary source" is any evidence which bears on the question's answer or solution; a "secondary source" is any assessment (or interpretation) of that evidence. In the absence of such a question (and subsequent argument in attempting to answer it), nothing or ...


4

The idea in brief A recent (2015) work, The First Nativity (Part II): History and Theology of Our Incarnate Lord and Savior by Joseph David Rhodes contains a good discussion of Neri. In short, the hypothesis is that Neri was the biological father of Shealtiel while Jeconiah was his legal father. The idea is not entirely new (the following image is from ...


4

A typical 1st century family home in Palestine was not one room but several rooms, on one or two floors, around a common open courtyard. Each room opened to the central space, so one lampstand in the central courtyard could shine into all the rooms of the house. The courtyard architectural type is well documented. The Neolithic site of Sha'ar HaGolan on ...


3

It seems that the Romans initially allowed the Jewish authorities to exercise capital punishment, but withdrew the privilege some time during Jesus' life. The historian Josephus writes of an instance in which stonings occurred, probably around the year 62 CE. The short version is as follows: The Roman prefect of Judæa, a man named Porcius Festus, died ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Creation myth of Ptah The creation myth of Ptah comes from Memphis which was created as the capitol city for Egypt during the Old Kingdom period by Pharaoh Menes. During the 26th dynasty (672BCE–525BCE; the late period) of Egypt, the Shabaka stone was ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Ogdoad of Hermopolis The creation myth of the Ogdoad is the oldest creation myth and It is very difficult to study because it is not contained in single volumes like all of the Babylonian myths. Instead, this myth is pieced together from multiple sources of ...


3

Early period The story of the standardization of the Hebrew Bible begins in late second Temple times, as evidenced by the Talmud (Ketubot 106a) attesting to scribes that were paid by the Temple to periodically compare the official scrolls to other copies and make corrections. Before this time, it is evident that significant variation in copies existed as ...


3

Tertulian (being a Roman) would have used a Roman calendar system of dating reigns of emperors. So, the part year of AD 14 would have been considered Tiberius' accession, and AD 15 would have been year 1, and so on. Hence the Lord would have been revealed in AD 26. It would have referred to his baptism in the year that John began baptising, and by the time ...


3

Aaron, Eleazar and Ithamar were specifically told not to rend their clothing in mourning for Nadab and Abihu when the Lord killed them for bringing profane fire to the Tabernacle: "Then Moses said to Aaron and to his sons Eleazar and Ithamar, “Do not uncover your heads nor tear your clothes, so that you will not die and that He will not become wrathful ...


3

Jesus tells a parable that is consistent with the practice: And a certain poor man, Lazarus by name, had been put at his gate— having been covered-with-sores, and desiring to be filled-to-satisfaction by the things falling (πιπτόντων) from the table of the rich man. Even indeed the dogs coming were licking his sores. (Luke 16:19-21 DLNT) The word fell ...


2

The Son of a ‘Canaanitish’ Woman The list of Simeon’s sons in Gen.46:10 states that the last named son, Shaul (or Saul), was “the son of a Canaanite woman”. Shaul’s designation is unique among Simeon’s sons whose mothers are not otherwise identified, unique even among Jacob’s 12 sons and many grandsons named in the family record as they arrived in Egypt ...


2

In regard to the specific request regarding background information from scripture about Abram's the mother one has to say the bible is virtually silent The Bible does not identify Abram's mother, only his father. Gen 11:26-27 Now Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran.This is the genealogy of Terah: Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and ...


2

Esarhaddon’s first campaign against Egypt in 673 BCE failed. He had rushed his troops into battle and was repulsed by Pharaoh Tirhakah and Egyptian forces in the eastern delta. But according to the Ancient History Encyclopedia: Esarhaddon learned from his mistake and, in 671 BCE, took his time and brought a much larger army slowly down through ...


2

Assyria seized control of all of Aram (Syria) and the northern kingdom of Israel in a single military operation during the Syro-Ephraimite War, c.734-732 BCE. Only the highland region of Ephraim (Samaria) survived the war relatively untrampled. It retained the name 'Israel', though only for a decade until it too was destroyed. Current scholarship suggests ...


2

Yes, I believe we should assume that the ancient Hebrew year averaged out to 365.24 days, with some years of 354 days and some of 384 days. Although the Bible does not explicitly mention intercalation (an added month), it is inferred in the name meaning of the first month of Abib. Abib simply means "tender, green ears" and refers to the ripening of the ...


2

Although one of the oldest cities in the ancient world, Jericho was not continuously occupied up until Israelite times. Ian Wilson says, in Before the Flood, pages 127-128, that Jericho's Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture thrived on a mix of agriculture and hunting. Whether or not the neolithic people who lived in Jericho were Semitic people related to the the ...


2

One thing is sure – Augustus died in AD 14 and Tiberius succeeded him. From that anchor point, we must resolve the ‘contradiction’ between Luke and Tertulian by concluding that: Either Luke or Tertulian was mistaken, (or) Both are right, but they begin counting from different start-points. I believe the latter option - Tertulian counts from AD 14, and ...


2

My persuasion is that the Masoret (with mitigated revision due from Dead Sea Scrolls) is the only biblically authoritative text for the books Genesis to Malakhi. It is a mistake and even pointless to think about English/Latin grammatical concepts in order to accurately resolve the actual intention of the Hebrew text. To map Hebrew grammatical elements to ...


2

Definitions The question is "interested in the terms 'primary' and 'secondary' in the technical sense they would be used by a professional historian." Wikipedia defines primary sources as original materials that have not been altered or distorted in any way. In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or ...


2

E. G. Richards says in Mapping Time, page 221, that references to any sort of calendar in the books of the Old Testament originating from before the Babylonian Exile are rare. Etymologies strongly suggest that it was tied to the seasonal year with a year that began in the autumn and was thus probably lunisolar, with months intercalated from time to time. ...


2

We can not do this by comparing the dates of the oldest extant manuscripts/tablets of Genesis and Enuma Elish, because all we have in both cases are copies of copies. However, we can examine the Enuma Elish story to establish what period is referred to. Leonard W. King (Enuma Elish, pages LXXII-LXXX) says of the actual tablets inscribed with portions of the ...


2

This seems to paint doctors in a somewhat negative light to say that she suffered under their care. That is one reading of the text but it is not the only one. Almost all English translations allow that reading, with the only exception I can find being the Weymouth New Testament: and had undergone many different treatments under a number of doctors ...


1

Although I could admit to the possibility that there were homes of an one-room nature in Israel at the time of Jesus, especially when the occupants of a particular dwelling were poor, it certainly was not a universal norm. Jesus himself asked his disciples to prepare the Last Supper in the "Upper Room." (Luke 22: 10-13). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cenacle ...


1

It is said in 2 Kings 16:20 this 20 Ahaz rested with his ancestors and was buried with them in the City of David. And Hezekiah his son succeeded him as king. (Emphasis Mine) Things were much different at that time, so it is very probable that yes, Ahaz had a son at the age of just 11.



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