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10

It is very important to keep in mind that we have no manuscripts of Macion's gospel and no translations of it. Furthermore, we have no extant neutral or pro-Marcion commentaries. The two commentaries we have, by Tertullian and Epiphanius, have a strongly anti-Marcion agenda, furthermore they disagree with each other at some key points. This makes saying ...


9

Regarding "key differences": When one battles, one has also encountered - no issue. When one engages, one has also met - no issue. When one is said to have been killed "by" a commander of troops, that does not mean one was necessarily killed directly by that commander. It can just as easily have been by the troops that were under his command. For example, ...


8

"Anachronism" is not a distinctive technical term in biblical hermeneutics, nor does it have a nuance which would distinguish it from its meaning in English more broadly. The Wikipedia article catches it nicely: "anachronism" is ...a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from ...


8

The very first miracle Jesus performed was a living illustration of his mission to cleanse. What did Jesus mean that his hour had not yet come? His hour to perform miracles? His mother surely was not asking him to perform a miracle, for he had never even done any miracles. Besides that, he immediately performed the miracle, something he would not have ...


8

The short answer to your questions is that none of these books have survived. This is not surprising; a very large number of books existed in the ancient world of which only a tiny minority have been preserved till now. But specifically to your first example: the Greek historian Ctesias claimed to have known the royal notebooks (basilikaì diphthérai), “in ...


7

The cannon of the Torah and of the Prophets were settled by 4th century BCE (earlier for the Torah), and we don't have much evidence as to what criteria were used. We don't know which books were most controversial, and we don't know which books were excluded. The cannon of the Writings was settled around the 1st or 2nd century CE. Since this was after ...


5

FIRST The comic claims that Elijah, Elisha, Samuel, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Amos, Habakkuk, Micah, Zechariah, Malachi, Haggai, Zephiniah, Joel, Jonah, and Nahum were not persecuted. Besides the fact that Zephaniah is misspelled and that Elijah, Elisha, Samuel, Isaiah, Ezekiel and Amos were persecuted, we do not know whether the rest were persecuted or not - ...


5

The Brick Testament is very antagonistic and chooses the worst possible interpretation of nearly any passage it attempts to illustrate. The charge of inaccuracy may be legitimate, but that misses the point. Emotional speech is meant to drive to the heart of the matter. Steven is imprecating these religious leaders for their rejection of God's ultimate ...


5

Judicial execution under Jewish law around that time was very rare and on the decline. Rabbi Akiva (c. 40-137 CE) said that a court that ever executes is bloodthirsty; Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah, dates uncertain but in the generation before R. Akiva, said a court that executes once in 70 years is bloodthirsty; others say once in seven years (Makkot 1:10, ...


5

What are the reasons for identifying Ezra's Artaxerxes as Artaxerxes I vs Artaxerxes II? Why is there a problem? In Ezra 7:7, reference is made to Ezra's arrival in Jerusalem in "the seventh year of King Artaxerxes" (= 458 BCE), as depicted earlier in the chapter: 7:1 Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra ... 7:6 ...


4

Marcion's gospel is clearly based on Luke's gospel. That's not important by itself because all of the early Christian writers, including the writers of the books that became cannon, depended on one another. Matthew and Luke were written in stages in the late first century, around AD 80. The Gospel of the Lord (Marcon's Gospel) was written around AD 140. ...


4

The Old Testament is the same as the Jewish Scripture, although not necessarily in the same order, and with some verses split up differently. It can be considered heritage for the most part, although Athanasius did not consider Esther to be Scriptural. The Apocrypha were never considered Scripture by the Jews. Again, Athanasius did not consider these ...


4

In Ps. 69:21 it says,"They gave Me also gall for My meat; and in My thirst they gave Me vinegar to drink." This is after the Psalmist says in vs 9,"For the zeal of thine house hath eaten Me up; and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen on Me." Both scenes were witnessed in the life of Jesus: when He drove out the moneychangers out of the ...


4

REVISED The metaphorical school of interpretation of Scripture is perhaps an organized reaction against the overly literal school of interpretation espoused by those generally well meaning folks who say quite vehemently and with an air of finality, "I believe the Bible is literally the Word of God!" In other ...


4

Dvorah is calling out all the tribes that sat on their hands and refused to fight. Each tribe sat on its hands in its characteristic way. Dan is famous for trading in ships, so they stayed by their ships. As opposed to Reuben, who more or less stayed by their sheeps. The nautical tendencies of Dan are mentioned in the old Jewish Encyclopedia. This verse is ...


4

The Masoretic text of the phrase translated "young as he was" (NIV) and "the child was very young" (VDC) translates literally as "and the boy [was] a boy." This phrase is והנער נער. Both translations are in agreement that it indicates the youngness of Samuel. However, other translations assume a textual problem here. They conclude that the repetition of ...


4

The ancient Hebrews used a lunar calendar; each month began with the sighting of the new crescent, and continued until the next sighting, which means that approximately half of the months had 29 days, and approximately half had 30. In order to keep the months in the correct seasons the Hebrews (like the Babylonians, Greeks etc.) must have practiced some form ...


4

Here are the key lines of Ezekiel 29:3 in Hebrew: הִנְנִי עָלֶיךָ פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם hinĕnî ʿāleykā parʿōh melek-miṣrayim (Behold I am against you, Pharaoh, king of Egypt,) הַתַּנִּים הַגָּדוֹל הָרֹבֵץ בְּתוֹךְ יְאֹרָיו hattannîm haggadōl hārōbēṣ bĕtôk yĕʾōra(y)w (the great dragon who lies in the midst of his rivers...) Textual ...


3

Contextualizing a text is fraught with all kinds of pitfalls. Distancing ourselves (the act of distanciation) from our preconceived ideas of what words mean to us today whenever interpreting a text from ancient history is at times difficult, but it pays rich rewards in the hermeneutical process. Think what happens, however, when we fail to do so. Think of ...


3

There is a brief but reliable account of the production of the Great Bible in S. L. Greenslade (ed.), The Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 3, The West from the Reformation to the Present Day (Cambridge University Press, 1963), pp. 150-152.* Greenslade also wrote this chapter on English versions in the 16th C. (It's a very common work, and should be in ...


3

Mt 27:48, Mk 15:26 - Jesus is offered sour wine on a sponge Lk 23:36 - The soldiers offer Jesus sour wine Jn 19:28-29 - Jesus is offered sour wine from a vessel on a sponge These verses are about a different drink of wine than that in question. Mt 27:34 - The soldiers offer Jesus wine mingled with gall before he is crucified, which He rejects. Mk 15:23 ...


3

Household codes were common in Greco-Roman culture, going back to at least Artistotle in his book Politics. In these Greco-Roman household codes, the father has an effectively absolute rule over his household (which includes his wife, children, and slaves), and in comparison to the household codes from the New Testament, they are definitely much harsher in ...


3

Yes the custom of raising the right hand was a customary gesture of a person taking an oath, implying that he appeals to God as a witness to the truth of his affirmation. From man to God: But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “With raised hand I have sworn an oath to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth, that I will accept nothing ...


3

The sizes didn't represent anything special themselves, but if you know them, then you know that this "image of gold" was not a mere statue - from the given proportions (10:1 ratio) you could conclude that it was an obelisk. Obelisks in ancient world could have special meanings and purposes. Some of them were considered "sacred pillars". Pliny the Elder in ...


3

I think you misunderstand what factors cause a person to become ritually impure and the dietary laws known as kashrut. The crow/raven is in a class of birds that are "unclean" meaning that they are not suitable for eating. The Torah's list of clean birds is limited to birds who are not birds of prey and those who are not scavengers, like the crow. These we ...


3

They were primarily bi-lingual Note: unattributed links are too general knowledge found on Wikipedia for the historical background. Alexander the Great made his conquests during the early 4th c. BC, at which time the Hellenization first occurred in the area (which in part actively sought the teaching of the Greek language). The Celtic invasion of Galatia ...


2

Firstly, even if the reference to "right" is to the right arm as part of an oath, I'm not sure how one could conclude they raised the arm. Maybe they just held it sideways or against their body or some such. Most Hebrew commentaries (Radak, Ibn Ezra, Metsudat David) explain "right" to be metaphorical - the right being typically stronger than the left, ...


2

No Failure of Theory Simply for Being on a Scroll Examine carefully the Isaiah scroll. About every three to four columns there is stitching of the pieces of parchment together. Codices are thus not the only documents with "leafs" (so to speak). It is possible for a section of a scroll to have separated at such a stitch point. Additionally The end of a ...



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