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9

Location: The location of Mount Horeb, which most understand to be the same as Mount Sinai (see Deut 4:10, 4:15, etc), is unclear. There are many traditions about the location of Mount Sinai, some of which are probably more hospitable than others. The location offered by Open Bible is but one of many. Sheep: None of the candidate locations appears to be ...


8

It is very important to keep in mind that we have no manuscripts of Macion's gospel and no translations of it. Furthermore, we have no extant neutral or pro-Marcion commentaries. The two commentaries we have, by Tertullian and Epiphanius, have a strongly anti-Marcion agenda, furthermore they disagree with each other at some key points. This makes saying ...


8

"Anachronism" is not a distinctive technical term in biblical hermeneutics, nor does it have a nuance which would distinguish it from its meaning in English more broadly. The Wikipedia article catches it nicely: "anachronism" is ...a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from ...


7

The cannon of the Torah and of the Prophets were settled by 4th century BCE (earlier for the Torah), and we don't have much evidence as to what criteria were used. We don't know which books were most controversial, and we don't know which books were excluded. The cannon of the Writings was settled around the 1st or 2nd century CE. Since this was after ...


7

The very first miracle Jesus performed was a living illustration of his mission to cleanse. What did Jesus mean that his hour had not yet come? His hour to perform miracles? His mother surely was not asking him to perform a miracle, for he had never even done any miracles. Besides that, he immediately performed the miracle, something he would not have ...


6

Stephen's interpretation is called "telescoping," conflating two very similar accounts into one. Telescoping was not an unusual phenomenon in the Land at the time. (Bruce, FF. The Book of Acts: New International Commentary on the New Testament (NICNT), pg 137, note 35). The account says nothing about Luke (the author) except that he was very careful to allow ...


6

For context, the statements about the burial come in the middle of a speech given by Stephen during his trial before the Sanhedrin. Thus it is not the Book of Acts per se stating these things, so much as recording what Stephen said. That said, interpreters have tried to make sense of Stephen's apparent mistake here for as long as there have been ...


5

The Pharisees were one of several sects active in Judaism in first century Judea. The other main sects were the Sadducees, the Zealots, and the Essenes. Of these sects, the Pharisees and Sadducees were the ruling parties. The ruling council, the Sanhedrin, was made up of the top Pharisees and Sadducees (the Sadducees were a priestly clan). Gamaliel being a ...


5

Not necessarily. Being a Roman administrator, Pilate would know Latin and Greek without question. Latin was the legal language of the empire (and commonly spoken in the oldest parts of the empire), and Greek was the common language of the rest of the empire. Alexander the Great and his successors forced territories they conquered to speak Greek. When the ...


5

Judicial execution under Jewish law around that time was very rare and on the decline. Rabbi Akiva (c. 40-137 CE) said that a court that ever executes is bloodthirsty; Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah, dates uncertain but in the generation before R. Akiva, said a court that executes once in 70 years is bloodthirsty; others say once in seven years (Makkot 1:10, ...


5

What are the reasons for identifying Ezra's Artaxerxes as Artaxerxes I vs Artaxerxes II? Why is there a problem? In Ezra 7:7, reference is made to Ezra's arrival in Jerusalem in "the seventh year of King Artaxerxes" (= 458 BCE), as depicted earlier in the chapter: 7:1 Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra ... 7:6 ...


4

Casting lots was used to allocate land, as noted by Galactic Cowboy (Joshua 18). In 1 Sam 14:41 King Saul and Jonathan are "taken by lot" to be punished, and then lots are cast between them (with Jonathan losing). In the Samuel passage it says that they inquired of YHVH. It is possible that the casting of lots here refers to divination using the urim and ...


4

John’s extensive marriage theme begins with none other than the wedding of Cana and Jesus’ encounter with His own mother, the first woman to appear in the gospel. When the "mother of Jesus" approaches him about the wedding’s lack of wine, she assumes and expects her son to assume a role that in Jewish custom is specifically reserved for the groom and or ...


4

Short Answer: The "hour" that Jesus is referring to here is the hour of His work on the cross. "The reason Jesus gives for the distance he maintains between his mother and himself must be viewed in the light of the cross. . . . the word 'time', literally 'hour' (hora), constantly refers to his death on the cross and the exaltation bound up with it (7:30; ...


4

It's difficult to determine whether and how overpriced was the purchase of the burial cave. We have little insight into the price of land during this time, which is compounded as well by our lack of knowledge as to the size of the burial site. Bruce Waltke writes: Since ancient land values and the extent of the property are unknown, it is impossible to ...


4

REVISED The metaphorical school of interpretation of Scripture is perhaps an organized reaction against the overly literal school of interpretation espoused by those generally well meaning folks who say quite vehemently and with an air of finality, "I believe the Bible is literally the Word of God!" In other ...


4

Marcion's gospel is clearly based on Luke's gospel. That's not important by itself because all of the early Christian writers, including the writers of the books that became cannon, depended on one another. Matthew and Luke were written in stages in the late first century, around AD 80. The Gospel of the Lord (Marcon's Gospel) was written around AD 140. ...


4

The Old Testament is the same as the Jewish Scripture, although not necessarily in the same order, and with some verses split up differently. It can be considered heritage for the most part, although Athanasius did not consider Esther to be Scriptural. The Apocrypha were never considered Scripture by the Jews. Again, Athanasius did not consider these ...


4

The Brick Testament is very antagonistic and chooses the worst possible interpretation of nearly any passage it attempts to illustrate. The charge of inaccuracy may be legitimate, but that misses the point. Emotional speech is meant to drive to the heart of the matter. Steven is imprecating these religious leaders for their rejection of God's ultimate ...


4

Regarding "key differences": When one battles, one has also encountered - no issue. When one engages, one has also met - no issue. When one is said to have been killed "by" a commander of troops, that does not mean one was necessarily killed directly by that commander. It can just as easily have been by the troops that were under his command. For example, ...


3

In Ps. 69:21 it says,"They gave Me also gall for My meat; and in My thirst they gave Me vinegar to drink." This is after the Psalmist says in vs 9,"For the zeal of thine house hath eaten Me up; and the reproaches of them that reproached thee are fallen on Me." Both scenes were witnessed in the life of Jesus: when He drove out the moneychangers out of the ...


3

Yes the custom of raising the right hand was a customary gesture of a person taking an oath, implying that he appeals to God as a witness to the truth of his affirmation. From man to God: But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “With raised hand I have sworn an oath to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth, that I will accept nothing ...


3

Dvorah is calling out all the tribes that sat on their hands and refused to fight. Each tribe sat on its hands in its characteristic way. Dan is famous for trading in ships, so they stayed by their ships. As opposed to Reuben, who more or less stayed by their sheeps. The nautical tendencies of Dan are mentioned in the old Jewish Encyclopedia. This verse is ...


3

Dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls is done by a variety of methods. Obviously, any individual scroll can be no older than the youngest component used in that scroll. However, no scholar dates the majority of the scrolls in the second century. In fact, the vast majority of the scrolls, based on the methods below for both material and composition, date from the BC ...


3

I agree with Soldarnal that Jesus is symbolically enacting the temple's coming destruction. But I disagree that his authority was simply from heaven. Jesus claimed to be like Solomon, the "Son of David" and thus the rightful builder of God's house. See my response to Did Jesus have the legal authority to cleanse the temple? for more. But why did Jesus ...


3

This builds on Frank Luke’s answer, especially Characteristic #4. Citations will follow later, P.G.; I’m not near my library at the moment. The Pharisee interpretation of the priestly Temple service was that it serves as a symbol and an ideal of Man’s duties to God, rather than being that duty. Along with a focus on the study of the Law came an effort to ...


3

Household codes were common in Greco-Roman culture, going back to at least Artistotle in his book Politics. In these Greco-Roman household codes, the father has an effectively absolute rule over his household (which includes his wife, children, and slaves), and in comparison to the household codes from the New Testament, they are definitely much harsher in ...


3

There is a brief but reliable account of the production of the Great Bible in S. L. Greenslade (ed.), The Cambridge History of the Bible: Volume 3, The West from the Reformation to the Present Day (Cambridge University Press, 1963), pp. 150-152.* Greenslade also wrote this chapter on English versions in the 16th C. (It's a very common work, and should be in ...


3

FIRST The comic claims that Elijah, Elisha, Samuel, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Amos, Habakkuk, Micah, Zechariah, Malachi, Haggai, Zephiniah, Joel, Jonah, and Nahum were not persecuted. Besides the fact that Zephaniah is misspelled and that Elijah, Elisha, Samuel, Isaiah, Ezekiel and Amos were persecuted, we do not know whether the rest were persecuted or not - ...



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