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17

The (relatively) small amount of bronze needed to make that serpent/snake (or נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת nĕḥaš nĕḥōšet) in the story of Num 21:4-9,1 even if it was as large as the monument now on Mount Nebo in Jordan,... ...would still have been quite small compared to the amount of bronze (let alone silver and gold) needed to make the utensils required for the ...


14

No. The tetragrammaton was not used in Jesus' time. Faithful Jews would avoid saying it so as to not transgress the third commandment. The most common circumlocution was "Lord" (Andonai in Hebrew or Kurios in Greek), though he might also be referred to simply as "Heaven." In answer to Jesus using El from the cross. El is the common word for God from all ...


9

The position in the question, that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is not original to Matthew 28:19 is held today by very few scholars. Those that do point to a quotation from the early church historian Eusebius. In Demonstratio 3.6, he replaces "name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit" with "my name." This is then taken as a direct quote from the copy of ...


8

Before anything, though, I must say that no, king Joash would not know that he must strike the ground five or six times. But, he really should have did that. All verse emphasis mine. First of all, we would have to look at the reason why Elisha would be angry at an answer to a seemingly minuscule command, 2 Kings 13:14 (NKJV) 14 Elisha had become ...


8

I don't know the method that Wayne Grudem used. On possible method is Levenshtein Distance, which measures the number of insertions, deletions, and subsitutions needed to convert one text to another. In order to test the method and compare it with the 92% found in the chart, I ran the first chapter of Genesis (without verse numbers) through an online ...


8

Jesus spoke primarily Aramaic followed by Hebrew and Greek. Since most of the new testament was written in greek, you will probably never find it recorded that Jesus said "YHWH" in scriptures. This doesn't mean he didn't say it, it's just a translation thing. Furthermore, it was Hebrew tradition to interpose the name Adonai inside of "YHWH" which is ...


7

The question of how "adoption" as used metaphorically by Paul relates to modern notions of adoption is not as important as comparing it to other ancient understandings. Once this is in place, however, the further comparison of the concept from Roman antiquity with modernity (in industrialized West, by implication?) can benefit from those findings. The Texts ...


6

The practice is not well understood, although it has long been claimed to be part of indigenous culture from time immemorial (well, from Ezekiel's time,1 anyway!) up to the present day. From antiquity, the evidence from Galen is often cited (see, e.g., Keil below). It comes up in his De sanitate tuenda, often known in English as "Galen's Hygiene". The ...


6

Suzerain covenants Modern contracts typically follow a certain format: the parties of the contract are identified, the terms and conditions are defined, certain penalties are defined, and the parties (and witnesses, if necessary) sign their agreement. There is a similarly formatted ancient Near Eastern contract, called a suzerain covenant, though these ...


6

The view one takes on the credibility of the assertion is going to depend largely on one's presuppositions and level of allowance for the Bible text to speak for itself. If the Torah (Law, i.e. "teaching" is the idea in Hebrew, not just the actual commands and prohibitions), which includes Genesis, was formed contra what critical scholars claim, and instead ...


6

Yes, Baptism is well attested in Jewish sources dating from both before and after Christ. These are both for mainstream Judaism and sectarian. From before Jesus, one finds clear references to baptism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. See for example, 1QS (The Community Rule) and 4Q274-276 (The Purity Texts). From sources dating after Jesus (but portraying ...


5

I wanted to clear up the ambiguities the other answers have left around. Moses is reviewing the laws that were originally given in Exodus and Leviticus. This law is originally found in Exodus 22:16-17 (NKJV): If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife. If her father ...


5

This theory is pretty credible. There a great deal of scholars which entertain this idea who are collectively known as Panbabylonists. This seems to raise the ire of many purists who would like to believe that Genesis was influenced by God alone. In my opinion, however many fail to consider the idea that perhaps sections of Genesis were not derived from ...


5

Indisputable? I agree with Frank Luke's comment, further adding that using such a term does technically make the question unanswerable (because, as Frank noted, people dispute things that ought not be). Probable Testimony Circa 60-70 A.D. The earliest probable reference to Luke's gospel is by the apostle Paul himself in 1 Tim 5:18, circa mid 60's A.D. ...


5

OP: So, can the Bible's relative chronology be translated into absolute dates? In a word, no. The converse, however, is possible, and I take it this is what is intended from the way the question proceeds: OP: What I am looking for are key biblical events that are verified by independent, extra-biblical sources. From such 'anchors', are we able to ...


4

Most people interpret these as the signs of later editors. Some potential editors are Moses updating Genesis, Samuel updating the books of the Law, Joshua and Judges, and perhaps some of the later court historians updating the earlier kingly narratives. Most of the time we don't know exactly who wrote what or when, but these phrases are referring to when ...


4

Rashi cites the Midrash Bereshit Rabba (80:11) as saying that this was a son of Simeon with his sister Dena. the son of the Canaanitess: The son of Dinah, who had been possessed by a Canaanite. When they killed Shechem, Dinah did not want to leave until Simeon swore to her that he would marry her -[Gen. Rabbah (80:11)]. The Midrash Bereshit Rabba cites ...


3

With any theory like this its just as credible that the influence goes the other way. The argument that the Sumerians could not influence the Hebrews directly is bunk, in that perhaps they could not directly influence the author of Genesis, but since they would have been contemporary with Abraham they could have influenced the stream of Hebrew thought at an ...


2

Yes, I believe we should assume that the ancient Hebrew year averaged out to 365.24 days, with some years of 354 days and some of 384 days. Although the Bible does not explicitly mention intercalation (an added month), it is inferred in the name meaning of the first month of Abib. Abib simply means "tender, green ears" and refers to the ripening of the ...


2

As my comments to Frank Luke's answer indicate, I strongly disagree with him. He cites Sotah 22b as source for a description of "what is a Pharisee" without realizing that this is not a term the rabbis used to describe themselves. A perush in that context is someone who separates themselves or an ascetic. The description there is talking about five ...


2

The answer isn't symbolism - it was that the Ishmaelites were wealthy traders of luxury items (gold, jewels, spices) who would travel to distant lands like Ethiopia and Yemen for their precious cargo. They would ride on camels because it was impossible to cross the hostile desert any other way. It was a dangerous trip, and they were well paid for their ...


2

Exodus 12:37 states that there were 600,000 men in the Exodus from Egypt. There must have been a similar number of women, plus children, so the estimate of two million seems reasonable, based on the Book of Exodus. In Ancient Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, page 408, Donald Redford gives the entire Egypt population in the Late Bronze Age as only ...


2

In regard to the specific request regarding background information from scripture about Abram's the mother one has to say the bible is virtually silent The Bible does not identify Abram's mother, only his father. Gen 11:26-27 Now Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran.This is the genealogy of Terah: Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and ...


2

Esarhaddon’s first campaign against Egypt in 673 BCE failed. He had rushed his troops into battle and was repulsed by Pharaoh Tirhakah and Egyptian forces in the eastern delta. But according to the Ancient History Encyclopedia: Esarhaddon learned from his mistake and, in 671 BCE, took his time and brought a much larger army slowly down through ...


2

Although one of the oldest cities in the ancient world, Jericho was not continuously occupied up until Israelite times. Ian Wilson says, in Before the Flood, pages 127-128, that Jericho's Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture thrived on a mix of agriculture and hunting. Whether or not the neolithic people who lived in Jericho were Semitic people related to the the ...


1

For a detailed description of koine and its common use in papyri, inscription, and many authors who didn't "Atticize" (imitate classical Attic Greek from 500 years before) in their Greek writings, see the introduction to Bauer's Greek-English Lexicon of the NT and other Early Christian Lit. He points out how it has characteristics of multiple dialects, and ...


1

First of all, it is understandable that anyone writing a New Testament book in Greek Koine would be influenced by the style of the Septuagint, since the LXX was the scriptural source used for reference and frequently cited or alluded to in the NT. That alone ought to give an occasional LXX flavour to the New Testament. The question seems to be whether the NT ...


1

Paul is not defining a cult here, he simply cannot be in the larger context. It would be eisegesis for those who say he is and not exegesis, we must let the text speak. He is clearly speaking to "the church of God, which is at Corinth" (1:2) and, if a cult, then he is saying that a cult is the church, which shatters the modern notion of it. No, he is ...


1

"My question posed here, [which] is about the historical context of Luke and Paul's relationship, and how that relationship might or might not have affected the textual relationships of the writings attributed to them." Undoubtedly, Paul and Luke had a working relationship - Paul himself says so - and therefore the assumption in note 1 should go ...


1

Egerton may be to John what Q is hypothetically to Matt/Luke. Wikipedia cites Jon B. Daniels (The Complete Gospels): "... suggestions that the Egerton Gospel served as a source for the authors of Mark and/or John also lack conclusive evidence. The most likely explanation for the Egerton Gospel's similarities and differences from the canonical gospels is ...



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