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19

The (relatively) small amount of bronze needed to make that serpent/snake (or נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת nĕḥaš nĕḥōšet) in the story of Num 21:4-9,1 even if it was as large as the monument now on Mount Nebo in Jordan,... ...would still have been quite small compared to the amount of bronze (let alone silver and gold) needed to make the utensils required for the ...


8

I don't know the method that Wayne Grudem used. On possible method is Levenshtein Distance, which measures the number of insertions, deletions, and subsitutions needed to convert one text to another. In order to test the method and compare it with the 92% found in the chart, I ran the first chapter of Genesis (without verse numbers) through an online ...


7

Suzerain covenants Modern contracts typically follow a certain format: the parties of the contract are identified, the terms and conditions are defined, certain penalties are defined, and the parties (and witnesses, if necessary) sign their agreement. There is a similarly formatted ancient Near Eastern contract, called a suzerain covenant, though these ...


7

The question of how "adoption" as used metaphorically by Paul relates to modern notions of adoption is not as important as comparing it to other ancient understandings. Once this is in place, however, the further comparison of the concept from Roman antiquity with modernity (in industrialized West, by implication?) can benefit from those findings. The Texts ...


6

The practice is not well understood, although it has long been claimed to be part of indigenous culture from time immemorial (well, from Ezekiel's time,1 anyway!) up to the present day. From antiquity, the evidence from Galen is often cited (see, e.g., Keil below). It comes up in his De sanitate tuenda, often known in English as "Galen's Hygiene". The ...


6

Indisputable? I agree with Frank Luke's comment, further adding that using such a term does technically make the question unanswerable (because, as Frank noted, people dispute things that ought not be). Probable Testimony Circa 60-70 A.D. The earliest probable reference to Luke's gospel is by the apostle Paul himself in 1 Tim 5:18, circa mid 60's A.D. ...


6

To discern what constitutes a "primary" source requires asking some research question or other: a "primary source" is any evidence which bears on the question's answer or solution; a "secondary source" is any assessment (or interpretation) of that evidence. In the absence of such a question (and subsequent argument in attempting to answer it), nothing or ...


5

OP: So, can the Bible's relative chronology be translated into absolute dates? In a word, no. The converse, however, is possible, and I take it this is what is intended from the way the question proceeds: OP: What I am looking for are key biblical events that are verified by independent, extra-biblical sources. From such 'anchors', are we able to ...


5

There are a number of indicators: Themes In the texts in Chapter 11 and earlier, all of the stories are about God's punishment of mankind. While the theme of salvation is present in these texts, there is also a theme of the depravity of mankind and their continual fall from grace. This theme isn't really present in the texts after Chapter 11 - only the ...


4

Rashi cites the Midrash Bereshit Rabba (80:11) as saying that this was a son of Simeon with his sister Dena. the son of the Canaanitess: The son of Dinah, who had been possessed by a Canaanite. When they killed Shechem, Dinah did not want to leave until Simeon swore to her that he would marry her -[Gen. Rabbah (80:11)]. The Midrash Bereshit Rabba cites ...


4

Most people interpret these as the signs of later editors. Some potential editors are Moses updating Genesis, Samuel updating the books of the Law, Joshua and Judges, and perhaps some of the later court historians updating the earlier kingly narratives. Most of the time we don't know exactly who wrote what or when, but these phrases are referring to when ...


3

It seems that the Romans initially allowed the Jewish authorities to exercise capital punishment, but withdrew the privilege some time during Jesus' life. The historian Josephus writes of an instance in which stonings occurred, probably around the year 62 CE. The short version is as follows: The Roman prefect of Judæa, a man named Porcius Festus, died ...


2

Yes, I believe we should assume that the ancient Hebrew year averaged out to 365.24 days, with some years of 354 days and some of 384 days. Although the Bible does not explicitly mention intercalation (an added month), it is inferred in the name meaning of the first month of Abib. Abib simply means "tender, green ears" and refers to the ripening of the ...


2

The answer isn't symbolism - it was that the Ishmaelites were wealthy traders of luxury items (gold, jewels, spices) who would travel to distant lands like Ethiopia and Yemen for their precious cargo. They would ride on camels because it was impossible to cross the hostile desert any other way. It was a dangerous trip, and they were well paid for their ...


2

In regard to the specific request regarding background information from scripture about Abram's the mother one has to say the bible is virtually silent The Bible does not identify Abram's mother, only his father. Gen 11:26-27 Now Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran.This is the genealogy of Terah: Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and ...


2

Exodus 12:37 states that there were 600,000 men in the Exodus from Egypt. There must have been a similar number of women, plus children, so the estimate of two million seems reasonable, based on the Book of Exodus. In Ancient Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, page 408, Donald Redford gives the entire Egypt population in the Late Bronze Age as only ...


2

Esarhaddon’s first campaign against Egypt in 673 BCE failed. He had rushed his troops into battle and was repulsed by Pharaoh Tirhakah and Egyptian forces in the eastern delta. But according to the Ancient History Encyclopedia: Esarhaddon learned from his mistake and, in 671 BCE, took his time and brought a much larger army slowly down through ...


2

The idea in brief A recent (2015) work, The First Nativity (Part II): History and Theology of Our Incarnate Lord and Savior by Joseph David Rhodes contains a good discussion of Neri. In short, the hypothesis is that Neri was the biological father of Shealtiel while Jeconiah was his legal father. The idea is not entirely new (the following image is from ...


2

Although one of the oldest cities in the ancient world, Jericho was not continuously occupied up until Israelite times. Ian Wilson says, in Before the Flood, pages 127-128, that Jericho's Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture thrived on a mix of agriculture and hunting. Whether or not the neolithic people who lived in Jericho were Semitic people related to the the ...


2

Tertulian (being a Roman) would have used a Roman calendar system of dating reigns of emperors. So, the part year of AD 14 would have been considered Tiberius' accession, and AD 15 would have been year 1, and so on. Hence the Lord would have been revealed in AD 26. It would have referred to his baptism in the year that John began baptising, and by the time ...


2

My persuasion is that the Masoret (with mitigated revision due from Dead Sea Scrolls) is the only biblically authoritative text for the books Genesis to Malakhi. It is a mistake and even pointless to think about English/Latin grammatical concepts in order to accurately resolve the actual intention of the Hebrew text. To map Hebrew grammatical elements to ...


2

Definitions The question is "interested in the terms 'primary' and 'secondary' in the technical sense they would be used by a professional historian." Wikipedia defines primary sources as original materials that have not been altered or distorted in any way. In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or ...


1

Assyria seized control of all of Aram (Syria) and the northern kingdom of Israel in a single military operation during the Syro-Ephraimite War, c.734-732 BCE. Only the highland region of Ephraim (Samaria) survived the war relatively untrampled. It retained the name 'Israel', though only for a decade until it too was destroyed. Current scholarship suggests ...


1

The question of Abram’s ethnicity is interesting from an historical perspective, but the biblical writers offered no information about his early life aside from the names of a few family members and the place they left (Gen.11:26-32). As noted by Jonathan Chell, however, the Talmud includes a great deal more information, even his mother’s name and several ...


1

The Idea in Brief The soul is the very life that all living creatures appear to share. (Thus no cadaver, whether man or animal, possesses the "nephesh.") However, only human beings possess the spirit, which appears to be the "Image of God." Discussion The passage of Hebrews 4:12 appears to discriminate between the material and immaterial aspects of the ...


1

For a detailed description of koine and its common use in papyri, inscription, and many authors who didn't "Atticize" (imitate classical Attic Greek from 500 years before) in their Greek writings, see the introduction to Bauer's Greek-English Lexicon of the NT and other Early Christian Lit. He points out how it has characteristics of multiple dialects, and ...


1

First of all, it is understandable that anyone writing a New Testament book in Greek Koine would be influenced by the style of the Septuagint, since the LXX was the scriptural source used for reference and frequently cited or alluded to in the NT. That alone ought to give an occasional LXX flavour to the New Testament. The question seems to be whether the NT ...


1

Paul is not defining a cult here, he simply cannot be in the larger context. It would be eisegesis for those who say he is and not exegesis, we must let the text speak. He is clearly speaking to "the church of God, which is at Corinth" (1:2) and, if a cult, then he is saying that a cult is the church, which shatters the modern notion of it. No, he is ...


1

"My question posed here, [which] is about the historical context of Luke and Paul's relationship, and how that relationship might or might not have affected the textual relationships of the writings attributed to them." Undoubtedly, Paul and Luke had a working relationship - Paul himself says so - and therefore the assumption in note 1 should go ...


1

Egerton may be to John what Q is hypothetically to Matt/Luke. Wikipedia cites Jon B. Daniels (The Complete Gospels): "... suggestions that the Egerton Gospel served as a source for the authors of Mark and/or John also lack conclusive evidence. The most likely explanation for the Egerton Gospel's similarities and differences from the canonical gospels is ...



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