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13

Tractate Sanhedrin, chapter 6, fourth mishna explains how stoning is carried out: MISHNA IV.: The stoning-place was two heights of a man. One of the witnesses pushed him on his thighs (that he should fall with the back to the surface), but if he fell face down, he had to be turned over. If he died from the effects of the first fall, nothing more was to ...


12

This is a big question and I think it will help to refactor it into some related questions: What did Jesus see as his mission? From the passages you cited and the fact that Jesus spent most of his time teaching Jews, it's not a stretch to say that Jesus saw his mission as limited to Israel. Now Jesus did go into the region of the Decapolis, which began as ...


12

The original word here is closest to yawan, aka Javan son of Japheth—who is credited in the Bible with being the start of the tree of descendants that populated the Greek region. So the translation isn't unreasonable, but it may be talking more about the people rather than a traditional "kingdom". For more information, see this page.


12

I believe your first option is the best but with a little modification. Moses originally had an Egyptian name that sounded almost exactly like a Hebrew name. The pun involved in the name is elaborate and crosses languages. Names like Tutmose, Ramose, Amenmose are well attested from Egypt. The addition of -mose makes it "born of Amen," "child of Tut," or ...


11

Was "Τετέλεσται" stamped across documents? Maybe. But I wouldn't think about translating this as "Paid in Full". Support for this phrase I have yet to find any true support for this phrase being used on tax documents. The closes I could come was from The Greek-English lexicon by Moulton and Milligan, which says: “Receipts are often introduced by the ...


11

There are some very close similarities but also some drastic differences. For similarities, there are a hero who builds a boat to preserve those chosen by a god. They build the boat with levels inside and seal it with bitumen. Both gather his family and animals in the Ark. The floods come. After the flood, they dismebark and sacrifice to the gods. Those ...


11

They are stoning him, and as such take him outside the city to a pit. There, they will strip him and hurl rocks on him until he dies. They are to aim for the chest, but precision is impossible. Under Jewish law,* the criminal was to be stripped (Mishnah Sanhedrin 6:4), but here the executioners strip themselves. The obvious reasons are that it was hot ...


11

According to classical Jewish interpretation, Dt 22:22-29 all deal with various situations of forcible and statutory rape as well as extramarital relations. The differences in the cases are mainly: the woman's marital status the woman's virginity the degree of consent or lack thereof that can be inferred from the geography Verse 22:28 deals with only one ...


10

You are correct that according to Judaism God is indisputably one, not several beings in one (nor a member of a pantheon of gods). So what does the use of first-person plural mean? The predominant explanation is that God is addressing other (non-godly) beings, though some say God is speaking with himself (like one does when considering both sides of a ...


10

This is the historical record regarding The Temple and the Samaritans from the Bible. Moses instructed the Israelites that there should be only one place of worship. Deuteronomy 12:8-11 (NIV) You are not to do as we do here today, everyone doing as they see fit, since you have not yet reached the resting place and the inheritance the Lord your God ...


10

D. A. Carson's commentary on John (generally considered to be the best available commentary on this book of the Bible) explains the following: (See p. 220-222) Different Canon... The Samaritans limited the canon to the Pentateuch. As a result, they accepted Deuteronomy 12:5 as authoritative... But you shall seek the Lord at the place which the Lord ...


10

It is very important to keep in mind that we have no manuscripts of Macion's gospel and no translations of it. Furthermore, we have no extant neutral or pro-Marcion commentaries. The two commentaries we have, by Tertullian and Epiphanius, have a strongly anti-Marcion agenda, furthermore they disagree with each other at some key points. This makes saying ...


9

Enuma Elish and Genesis have the strongest connection in their first lines--"In the beginning" vs. "When on high." Some say that Genesis is written as a polemic against Enuma Elish. They are very different. 1a. Enuma Elish starts with the elemental representatives of chaos, Apsu and Tiamat. They are the father and mother of the gods respectively. It ...


9

Did others than the 11 Apostles see the risen Jesus? There is at least one other record that says a group consisting of more than the apostles saw Jesus after his resurrection. Luke 24:33-37 (ESV quoted): And they rose that same hour and returned to Jerusalem. And they found the eleven and those who were with them gathered together, saying, "The Lord ...


9

The NET Bible includes this translator's note: Heb “the one coming out, who comes out from.” The text uses a masculine singular participle with prefixed article, followed by a relative pronoun and third masculine singular verb. The substantival masculine singular participle הַיּוֹצֵא (hayyotse’, “the one coming out”) is used elsewhere of inanimate ...


9

The original washing of hand before eating applied only sanctified food such as to cohanim (descendents of Aaron) when eating trumah, Levites when eating maaser and to other people when eating maaser sheni in Jerusalem on the pilgrimage holidays of Passover, Weeks and Tabernacles. About the time of Jesus, the Pharisees began a custom of eating hulin ...


9

The oldest discovered example of written Hebrew dates from about 3000 years ago -- although this dating is disputed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7700037.stm). Conversely, samples of Sumerian Cuneiform have been discovered from more than 5000 years ago. Granted, the language might have existed for quite a while prior to the development of a written ...


9

Dr. Meshulam Margaliot points out that Midrashic tradition is divided about what was written on which tablet. The options seem to be: 1–5 on one and 6–10 on the other. (This is the tradition interpretation that is most common in art and synagogue decoration.) All 10 on each tablet. Even numbered on one and odd on the other (as suggested by ...


9

Location: The location of Mount Horeb, which most understand to be the same as Mount Sinai (see Deut 4:10, 4:15, etc), is unclear. There are many traditions about the location of Mount Sinai, some of which are probably more hospitable than others. The location offered by Open Bible is but one of many. Sheep: None of the candidate locations appears to be ...


9

Regarding "key differences": When one battles, one has also encountered - no issue. When one engages, one has also met - no issue. When one is said to have been killed "by" a commander of troops, that does not mean one was necessarily killed directly by that commander. It can just as easily have been by the troops that were under his command. For example, ...


8

According to evidence presented by P.J. Wiseman concerning the toledoth, the Genesis account was written by eyewitnesses to the events and therefor is the primary and older source. The word translated 'generations' in the repeated formula "these are the generations of" should be considered the signature line on a clay tablet, and Genesis read as a string of ...


8

Ehrman is a fascinating scholar, swinging radically between perspectives throughout his career. He's obviously quite intelligent and it also seems like he wholeheartedly throws his entire being into his research, which is why you can account for such radical opinions. They become a part of his very being. The primary medium by which information was ...


8

The very first miracle Jesus performed was a living illustration of his mission to cleanse. What did Jesus mean that his hour had not yet come? His hour to perform miracles? His mother surely was not asking him to perform a miracle, for he had never even done any miracles. Besides that, he immediately performed the miracle, something he would not have ...


8

"Anachronism" is not a distinctive technical term in biblical hermeneutics, nor does it have a nuance which would distinguish it from its meaning in English more broadly. The Wikipedia article catches it nicely: "anachronism" is ...a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from ...


8

The short answer to your questions is that none of these books have survived. This is not surprising; a very large number of books existed in the ancient world of which only a tiny minority have been preserved till now. But specifically to your first example: the Greek historian Ctesias claimed to have known the royal notebooks (basilikaì diphthérai), “in ...


7

First of all, the believers in Acts 1 had not yet received the Holy Spirit. However, their trust was placed in something they knew of God: The lot is cast into the lap, but its every decision is from the LORD. (Proverbs 16:33 ESV) Other Old Testament verses that refer to this practice include Proverbs 18:18 (settling a quarrel or choosing between ...


7

Based purely on the text you quoted: it seems to be neither. He was upset at what he saw and took the law into his own hands, causing losses to those he attacked. (I'm talking only about the direct losses, like those coins and any animals that weren't recovered, and not indirect losses of sales.) The laws in place at the time called for him to instead ...


7

I've been unable to find other tower-construction myths that explain diverse languages. According to this article Hindu mythology includes a tree that reached to the heavens and itself grew haughty (the tree, not men), and as a result the tree was struck down and diverse languages and beliefs ensued. That's a similar theme in broad strokes, but very ...


7

The Greek word translated "coats" in the NRSV is himation <2440>: Although the above image shows Zeus naked under his himation, it was more usual for them to be worn over a chiton <5506> or tunic. One common translation of the word is "cloak", which gets across the idea that these are optional outer layers designed more for warmth than for modesty. ...


7

Though I don't know of a Bible published that way, there are some reading plans on the web that work as you describe. A couple of options for reading plans can be found here. This site is the closest I found to what you wrote about. It has several plans available which may benefit you such as the historical and chronological plans. You'll want to watch ...



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