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16

Good question - could take a book to answer! Here are some brief notes by way of a preliminary answer. The key phrase which unlocks (or veils?) identity is in v. 12: "O Lucifer, son of the morning!" Hebrew: הֵילֵ֣ל בֶּן־שָׁ֑חַר | hêlēl ben-šāḥar Greek: ὁ ἑωσφόρος ὁ πρωὶ ἀνατέλλων | ho heōsphoros ho prōi anatellōn Grk trans.: the Day Star, which ...


10

While I agree with Soldarnal's analysis, this question is interesting enough that I would like to play devil's advocate. I've been mulling over the issue all week so bear with my (overly-long) answer. God's Accuser The setup of Job is the Adversary looking for a way to discredit God: The Adversary answered the Lord, “Does Job not have good reason to ...


10

This is an intriguing interpretation, but there are a couple things that I think militate against it: First, Job 32:2-3 seems to frame the discussion that precedes it in terms similar to the traditional interpretation as concerning theodicy. Elihu is angry because Job has taken up the cause of his own justice rather than that of God's. He is also angry ...


8

I understand you may be looking for an exegesis that fits within your existing view ('that 90% of the Book of Revelations is yet to be fulfilled'). However, I will be offering a more grammatical-historical approach. The Roman Empire destroyed Jerusalem and its temple in 70 AD, an event Jews quickly began comparing to the destruction of Jerusalem and its ...


8

"Anachronism" is not a distinctive technical term in biblical hermeneutics, nor does it have a nuance which would distinguish it from its meaning in English more broadly. The Wikipedia article catches it nicely: "anachronism" is ...a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person(s), events, objects, or customs from ...


7

A Socio-cultural hermeneutical approach is the worst way to interpret scripture, since this approach is usually based on extra-biblical sources, and allows anyone to interpret any scripture any way they want. You can always find some instance of ancient culture that will allow you to interpret scripture in the way that bests suits you, also known as ...


7

Are Job's friends the voice of the Accuser? In my framework for understanding Job, in the context of justice, the men roughly represent: Job: The wisdom of Ecclesiastes (mis-applied) Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar: The wisdom of Proverbs (also mis-applied) Elihu: the voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Prepare the way of the Lord" Job identifies ...


7

An accurate translation of εκκλησια would be 'assembly'. Also, εκκλησια is used as a near-synonym with συναγωγη. Here are a few examples of εκκλησια in the Septuagint (though I am using the common verse numbers, not the LXX's). Leviticus 8.3: assemble (εκκλησιασον) all the gathering (συναγωγην) Deuteronomy 9.10: the day of the assembly (εκκλησιας) ...


7

This may be related to another question about the parable that is the context for this question on Matthew 18:34 in particular. OP: What is the original word used in our oldest manuscripts and how has that word been traditionally used? The word used here for "torturers" is τοῖς βασανισταῖς or, in its lexical form, βασανιστής (basanistēs). There are no ...


7

The attestation of χριστός outside of Jewish/Christian antique Greek literature is quite small. This is immediately apparent if you look at a list of all occurrences known to the Perseus corpus, as well as the citations noted in the Liddell-Scott-Jones entry. According to Walter Grundmann, writing in the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (vol. 9, ...


6

First, an important correction: the text here (at least the Masoretic version) does not actually mention Judah; that appears to be an editorial addition in the NLT. The text of v14 is: כֹּל, הַמִּשְׁפָּחוֹת הַנִּשְׁאָרוֹת--מִשְׁפָּחֹת מִשְׁפָּחֹת, לְבָד; וּנְשֵׁיהֶם, לְבָד. JPS 1917: All the families that remain, every family apart, and their wives ...


6

Judicial execution around that time was very rare and on the decline. Rabbi Akiva (c. 40-137 CE) said that a court that ever executes is bloodthirsty; Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah, dates uncertain but in the generation before R. Akiva, said a court that executes once in 70 years is bloodthirsty (Makkot 1:10, Babylonian Talmud). Capital punishment was legal ...


6

"Born" is usually a conjugation of the verb ילד. However, in Hebrew, different words can have an overlap in meaning, and this appears to be the case with יחם. While יחם simply means "to be hot" (cp. Eze. 24:11), it may also be used idiomatically in the realm of sexuality, meaning "to be aroused." This phenomenon is not unlike that which occurs in many other ...


6

An angel as a primeval enemy of humanity The Hebrew noun satan, along with related nouns and verbs, are semi-common in the Hebrew scriptures. These terms are used in a variety of contexts and refer to a variety of individuals. In Numbers 22.22,32, for example, it is an angel explicitly acting on God's behalf who is identified as a satan, meaning ...


5

I can't speak to Jewish interpretation, but ancient Christians would not have understood "genre" in the sense that we do today. To them, all scripture was allegorical and all scripture was historical. Jerome, in his Commentary on Jonah first reminded his readers that Jesus referred to Jonah typologically, and that this symbolism is the primary meaning of ...


5

If we are to think like the first-century hearers, we must recognize that the importance of the number fourteen is that it is a multiple of (that ever-so-important number) seven. Matthew is implying that the entire flow of God's history of creating a people for himself shows that Jesus the Christ is our Sabbath rest. Forty-two, not Fourteen Three sets of ...


5

Definitions שֵׁשׁ (shesh; Strong's 8336) comes from שַׁיִשׁ (shayish; Strong's 7893), meaning to bleach or whiten. Thus shesh can indicate white/bleached clothe (byssus/linen), or white stone (alabaster/marble). מָשְׁזָר (mashzar) is hophal of שָׁזַר (shazar; Strong's 7806) and means twisted: Translation Examples Shesh occurs alone in Exodus 28:5: ...


5

Numerology A recent question linked to a reference of meaning of various numbers in the Bible and this passage seem to be the primary source of meaning for the number 14. None of the other references seem particularly compelling and seem to be included for data-mining purposes. I would say that the number 14 has no particular meaning in the Bible outside ...


5

In Hebrew the words share two of the three letters of the root: Sabbath (Shabbat), שַׁבָּת, is Strong's H7676. It is spelled shin-bet-taf. Seven, שֶׁבַע, is Strong's H7651. It is spelled shin-bet-'ayin. While Shabbat does fall on the seventh day of the week, Strong's doesn't note a linguistic connection between the two words nor have I ever learned one ...


5

It may likely grow into the Sinapis Nigra (Black Mustard). It can grow to eight feet tall, so it could actually be literally used by small birds to nest on its branches. However parables are not to be taken so literally and the image may be a slight exaggeration as part in parcel with the point of the passage. In the OT mustard is not mentioned. Yet ...


5

Meaning of κόκκῳ σινάπεως This is more or less just some additional information, Mike's answer is good. According to the IVP NT Commentary series: Scholars still dispute what plant is meant by the “mustard seed.” Nevertheless, by no conjecture is it the smallest of all seeds that Jesus’ listeners could have known (the orchid seed is smaller); the ...


5

I cannot explain why two different translators would come up with different meanings except to say they had different agendas. One agenda, I'm afraid, is the concept that sex is dirty or wrong, and the second is the Christian concept of "original sin." Neither of these is accepted in a Jewish reading of the Hebrew. With JPS translation, it is as follows: ...


5

Be careful not to bring theological and cultural assumptions to the text, namely that Hades and heaven are separate places (and the corresponding ideas about what they are).1 The notions of 'heaven' and 'hell' in Western culture were foreign in the mindset of first-century Judea, and thus reading these ideas back into the text is anachronistic.2 What is ...


5

In a related question, I surveyed some of the ancient Jewish and Christian literature that identified the serpent with the satan. This is probably the historical starting point for what would become a 'messianic' interpretation of the verse.1 It has also been argued that, on the basis of the Septuagint translation of Genesis 3.15, Jews were already reading ...


5

Note: Since some gap theory arguments rely on phrasing in the King James, I will be quoting from the KJV unless otherwise noted. All verses will be examined in the KJV, other versions will be listed if they correct or add to the discussion. The Gap Theory, sometimes called the Ruin and Reconstruction Theory of creation, postulates that an unspecified amount ...


4

The Hebrew of "raisin cakes" is אֲשִׁישֵׁ֥י עֲנָבִֽים Strong's: 809, 6025. The old rendering is "flagons of wine" (KJV). If that interpretation is taken, then he is criticizing their drunkenness, as elsewhere in Hosea. Calvin and Henry both follow the flagon translation. However, this appears to be a mistranslation; the word seems to come from a root ...


4

I see Bruce stated this in a comment, but I'll give more detail. In Hebrew, David's name adds up to 14 when each letter is treated as a number (called gematria). You skip the vowel points (nikkud) and just add up the values of the consonants dalet waw daleth (the same character is used for V and W). Dalet counts as 4, Waw counts as 6, and another Dalet ...


4

So far I've found two "surveys" (links below), both of which agree that there are four main interpretations of the vision: Literal (post-Exile) - Under this view the vision anticipates a literal new temple built after the exiles' return. There is little evidence, though, that any of the returning exiles considered the pattern given in the vision as ...


4

That is a good question, Stephen. Isaiah does not give many details, but he also does not claim that God told him to go in to this woman. He only claims that God provided the name for the child. There are a few things to consider: Isaiah was told to take his son with him in the previous chapter (Isaiah 7:3), which should indicate that he did have a wife. ...


4

That's an interesting question. Jabez isn't mentioned anywhere else, he just appears, prays, and disappears again. I think that given the tone of this interjection, the chronicler's point was theological in nature. This fits with the overall theme of 1-2 Chronicles, which was written after the Jew's return from exile to remind them of God's covenant ...



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