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18

The author of Hebrews is quoting Habakkuk 2:4 from the Septuagint (as opposed to the Hebrew.) In the Hebrew, this part of the verse would literally translate something like this: "Behold the scornful; his mind shall not be happy" (Stuart) (Part of the difficulty in translating Heb. 10:38 is that this is an English translation of a Greek interpretation ...


8

(I wrote this in an essay on Hebrews a few years back, and this was also asked here) Origen (185-254 CE) in the East has been quoted as saying that God only knows who wrote the Epistle although he also suggested that Paul was the author (Robertson, 1932). Hippolytus (170-236 CE) from Rome denied it was written by Paul. Tertullian (160-220 CE) in North ...


8

Authorship of Hebrews Expansion of Pauline Authorship The only overt clue as to the authorship is the reference to Timothy in Hebrews 13:23. This, in addition to the Eastern/Alexandrian tradition of Pauline authorship, led many to believe that Paul was the author. This is supported by significant uncial evidence that places Hebrews with other Pauline works ...


7

Hebrews 5:8 does not imply that Jesus was disobedient. Philippians 2:8 (ESV) reads, And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross. Both of these verses teach us that it was God the Son who had no need of obedience before becoming a man. Once he did become a man there were things ...


7

I like Origen's comment on the authorship of Hebrews: But as for myself, if I were to state my own opinion, I should say that the thoughts are those of the apostle [Paul], but that the diction and phraseology are those of someone who wrote down at his leisure what had been said by his teacher. Therefore, if any church holds that this epistle is ...


7

This is because the author of Hebrews was quoting Psalm 8:6, which uses the plural pronoun, and the NIV 2011 translation committee likely was attempting to line the quote up with the original verse. However, the singular pronoun is used in the Greek for this passage in Hebrews 2:8. It appears that all of the pronouns are singular until verse 11 ("He ...


7

Several techniques that people use to establish literary dependence include: Identical passages of several words or more Unusual or unexpected words matching (especially usages that are idiosyncratic to one of the authors) Overal structure matching Matches in narrative or parenthetical material (this precludes the possibility that both are just quoting the ...


7

Yes, I think Jesus is the Logos mentioned in Hebrews 4:12, for a few reasons. To start with, the ESV translation: "For the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and of spirit, of joints and of marrow, and discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart. And no creature is hidden from his ...


6

"Propitiation" is the preferred choice of the two since it addresses both the context and the theology of the act. The meaning of propitiation is actually more forceful than how it is normally translated, as "appeasing." Instead, it's more in line with specifically being the object of the direct wrath of the deity in question (in the Greek mind) for ...


5

I would suggest that propitiation, expiation and mercy seat are all viable options. My reasoning is based on theological and linguistic insights. I subscribe to the linguistic theory of signs and signification. Words are considered signs and their meaning is derived (signified) by the real word entities they point to. When we communicate using the word ...


5

Let us consider first the merits of Rachab: She was an outsider, a non-Jew, yet she recognized the God of Israel as true. It's hard enough for members of a community to act on their faith sometimes, and yet she did it from outside, without any of the usual societal support. And aligning with the people of Israel due to faith in God is quite novel at this ...


5

I Sam 12:11 in 4QSam Frg.d has only the word "Jerubal", the rest of the verse is missing. Leningrad and Allepo have "...Jerubbaal and Bedan and Jephthah and Samuel...", same in Brenton's English LXX. RASHI says Bedan is Samson as he was "in [the tribe of] Dan" ("b'Dan") or "of the tribe of Dan" ("ben Dan"). The targum has "...Gideon and Samson and Jephtah ...


5

Implicit in the question is another question - do the NT authors serve as a model for interpretation of OT texts? I think the short the answer is 'not necessarily'. Both the OT and NT authors spoke from God by the Holy Spirit - they both spoke into particular contexts, and with their own particular styles, but they did not need to perform exegesis on other ...


5

Historically there is a clear distinction between the king and the high priest. The first was always from the tribe of Judah and the second from the tribe of Levi. Even if there are examples of kings that also were priests, that was never an accepted order. Still Jesus is claimed to be the Messiah (King): Jesus and his disciples went on to the villages ...


5

The short answer to the question that forms this thread's title is: "no". Unpacking that, the key words in the second half of the verse, Ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς οἱ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰταλίας, simply refer to native Italians in whatever place the writer was currently located. This is a long-held view: see for example Marcus Dods' explanation in The Expositor's Greek Testament ...


5

Background Hebrews 1:1-4 sets out a thesis that the rest of the book will unpack by way of encouraging its Christian audience to remain faithful. The author's constant appeal to the Hebrew Scriptures accounts for the traditional title, "The Letter to the Hebrews", although the book doesn't look much like a letter, and it never identifies its audience as ...


4

As GalacticCowboy's answer suggests, the phrase seems to be related to commissioning elders. Given that Paul was a student of Gamaliel (Acts 22) and the author of Hebrews seems deeply knowledgeable about Jewish sacrificial rites and uses arguments similar to Paul's in Galatians, it seems possible that both are referencing the rabbinic practice of semikhah ...


4

This is not the standard word for fear, which would be phobos. Rather eulabeia, ultimately comes from the verb lambano, which has various meanings, but here captures the meaning of "to take." Eulabeia has at its root the meaning of to take hold of, in the sense of devotion, taking hold of God. It is not a fear based thing, but a conscious choice. Examining ...


4

In John Owen's introduction on his commentary on Hebrews, who argues against every known argument against Paul's authorship, concluding it was Paul, list a few of the other candidates. I very briefly summarized Owen's argument for Paul's authorship here. Why Paul probably wrote Hebrews. These are the early candidates raised under this controversy: ...


4

The Greek word used in Hebrews 6:4 is φωτισθέντας which is pronounced "phōtisthentas." This word looks nothing like the Greek word for "baptize"-βαπτίζω. I cannot address if the Syriac words for "enlightenment" and "baptism" look alike and would be likely to cause confusion. What I do know is that textual criticism, the art/science of determining the ...


4

The Greek text of Heb. 9:4 is, χρυσοῦν ἔχουσα θυμιατήριον καὶ τὴν κιβωτὸν τῆς διαθήκης περικεκαλυμμένην πάντοθεν χρυσίῳ ἐν ᾗ στάμνος χρυσῆ ἔχουσα τὸ μάννα καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος Ἀαρὼν ἡ βλαστήσασα καὶ αἱ πλάκες τῆς διαθήκης The phrase in question is χρυσοῦν θυμιατήριον (chrysoun thymiatērion). Both the accusative and nominative declension are spelled ...


4

An important piece of evidence that provides a partial answer for this question comes from the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS). 11Q13 A large number of fragments were found in Cave 11, among them a text known as 11Q13 or 11QMelchizedek. In brief (and quoting the "About" text from the DeadSeaScrolls.org.il site),1 it is a short text which focuses on ...


4

Good question! The Greek ending -σμοσ makes a noun out of a verb. The verb "σαββατιζο", as used by Plutarch and Justin Martyr about keeping the sabbath, therefore becomes "the result of keeping the sabbath". In a similar way, "inflate", the act of increasing the size of something, becomes "inflation", the result of increasing the size of something. It ...


4

In Heb 6:4-6, what have those once enlightened “fallen away” from? Here we see a most solemn declaration being set forth by the author of Hebrews; the antithesis of the progress he desired his readers to make. The basic premise is if you are not moving forward, you are dropping back. But such a superficial will not serve our purpose here. What they have ...


3

I think this is a superb answer so I do not intent to supplant it, but perhaps supplement. Rahab has a couple of notable mentions in the New Testament: Hebrews 11 (which you've identified) and James 2. James 2 is almost more shocking than Hebrews 11 since she's held on par with Abraham as an example of saving faith. Looking back at the actual story in ...


3

According to Liddell and Scott's lexicon, ἀρχηγός can mean1: I. beginning, originating a thing, c. gen. II. as Subst., like ἀρχηγέτης, founder, of a tutelary hero.2 2. a prince, chief. 3. a first cause, originator. Of particular interest is "II. founder". Founders of companies and other institutions often get an extra level of respect. For ...


3

One thing to keep in mind when drawing up a list of candidates is that we don't know the names of the vast majority of 1st century Christians. There's a very good chance that the author of Hebrews is not anyone we've ever heard of otherwise. No one thinks we know the name of the author of the Didache or 1 Clement (I'm picking non-canonical examples to avoid ...


3

Internal Evidence is really hard to use to establish a claim for such a thing. It is too subjective and, as such, is most helpful for corroborating External Evidence. The Greek in Hebrews is good - so Luke is a candidate. However, the content is decidedly Jewish, which Luke never really demonstrates as something about which he has tremendous grasp ...


3

Hebrews has long been associated with Paul, though, as you say, the Greek style and the focus are different. The combination of literary Greek and knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures indicates the author was probably a Greek-speaking Jew. A few apostles and teachers mentioned in the book of Acts fit this profile: Barnabas, a Levite from Cyprus (Acts 4:36) ...


3

In 1 Timothy 5:22, the context (starting from verse 17) appears to be focused upon the appointment of elders (presbuteros). It seems from various passages (Acts 6:6, 13:3; 1 Timothy 4:14) that this act (laying on of hands) symbolized the dedication or commissioning of an individual to a task - in this case, leading the church. 2 Timothy 1:6 apparently ...



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