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14

Two-thousand years ago a rabbi was a teacher and advisor but not, by himself, a legal authority. Questions of interpreting the law were argued in rabbinic courts, study halls, and ultimately the sanhedrin. The talmud is in large part a written record of those arguments. A typical argument might go as follows: R. Yehoshua said that the law (on some topic) ...


14

The Hebrew phrase in Psalms 118:25 from which the Greek Hosanna (ὡσαννά) derives is actually two words: הוֹשִׁ֨יעָ֥ה נָּ֑א (hoshi'ah na): הוֹשִׁ֨יעָ֥ה (hôšîâ) is Hiphil imperative masculine singular fromישׁע` (ysh'), which means to help, save, rescue. נָּ֑א (na) is a particle which indicates urgency or sincerity, and takes different meanings based on ...


14

The Hebrew word שמיים (shamayim), which is translated into English, is what is known in Judaism as a כנוי (kinnui), or a "substitute," "nickname." The reason why Matthew uses "kingdom of Heaven" more often than "kingdom of God" is because he wrote to a Jewish audience, and the Jews did not pronounce the Tetragrammaton יהוה, and sometimes not even the word ...


11

Manuscript Evidence While the Codex Sinaiticus dates from the 4th century, other manuscript fragments date much earlier. The Greek unical codices provide important clues to the development of the Canon, but are less important as evidence of the date of composition. For instance, this is a fragment of the Gospel of John: Dating the papyrus scrap is ...


10

During the Intertestamental period, Judas the Maccabee (the Hammer) led a major revolt in Israel. This is the Hasmonean revolt (beginning in 167 BC). After Judah and the other Hasmoneans led the people to victory in a major battle, the people had a celebration. They cut off palm branches, waved them in the air, and shouted "Hosanna!" Judah was killed in ...


10

Short Answer: Yes, it is definitely possible for John's chronology to be reconciled with that of the Synoptics. As the following chart shows, the sequence of Passion events recorded in John is in perfect harmony with the sequence in the Synoptics. When John's terminology is properly understood, it becomes clear that John's chronology does not contradict that ...


10

This is a textual issue. That is, some manuscripts have the words and fasting while others don’t. The NA28 includes the text similar to the GNT you quote: . . . τοῦτο τὸ γένος ἐν οὐδενὶ δύναται ἐξελθεῖν εἰ μὴ ἐν προσευχῇ (NA28) . . . this kind cannot be driven out by anything but prayer (ESV) The apparatus notes the variant you ask about (the ...


8

Ehrman is a fascinating scholar, swinging radically between perspectives throughout his career. He's obviously quite intelligent and it also seems like he wholeheartedly throws his entire being into his research, which is why you can account for such radical opinions. They become a part of his very being. The primary medium by which information was ...


8

Some say the "Kingdom of Heaven" refers to the a physical/political kingdom on earth while the "Kingdom of God" is the spiritual, coming reign of Christ. Arguments against the two being the same often come down to hair splitting and misinterpretation of verses. For example, the site listed above relies on a single verse in an attempt to say they are ...


8

They are named that way by tradition and we cannot be 100% sure that the tradition is accurate. While the early Christians say that Matthew was written in either Hebrew or Aramaic, more recent scholarship suggests otherwise. Our only sources, though, are from at least a half generation later. The only evidence we have of Mark's authorship are writings ...


8

My reading of the Gospels—especially Mark—is that Jesus operated in grey territory from the perspective of human authority. For instance, right at the beginning of his ministry, the people were amazed at his authority: And they were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as one who had authority, and not as the scribes. —Mark ...


8

Mark is more reliable.¹ Even if you were to completely discredit Mark², something is more than nothing. You cannot reasonably compare the accuracy of one document that exists with one that is only speculated to exist. Anybody that tries to tell you differently is selling something³. Answering your stated question is really that simple. In the world of ...


8

A Plausible Majority Text Argument Susan's answer has correctly given the direct answer to your question when she states: This is a textual issue. That is, some manuscripts have the words and fasting while others don’t. That is the simple fact. Which manuscript tradition the particular translation in question is following determines the omission or ...


7

It seems that there were probably two incidents, one described in Matthew, Mark and John, and one described in Luke. The accounts in Matthew, Mark, and John all seem to be one account: All take place in Bethany Mark and John both mention that it is pure nard Mark and John both mention the figure of 300 denarii In all three, some of the disciples are ...


7

The Wikipedia article Hosanna makes a reference to the Bauer Lexicon, explaining the etymology of the Greek word ὡσαννά: derived from Aramaic (הושע נא) from Hebrew (הושיעה נא) (Psalm 118:25, הוֹשִׁיעָהנָּא), meaning "help" or "save, I pray", "an appeal that became a liturgical formula; as part of the Hallel... familiar to everyone in Israel." So by the ...


7

In the Hebrew Bible, salt is both a disinfectant and preservative, but if the salt loses its integrity (or its "flavor" to preserve) the result is disintegration. When Jesus talked about salt "trampled under feet," he was referring to this latter connotation of disintegration found in the Hebrew Bible. So when salt maintains its integrity (or its "flavor" to ...


6

Below are a few different entries for the Greek word ὡσαννά (copied from BibleWorks 8): Friberg Lexicon 29106 ὡσαννά a particle transliterated from the Aramaic; strictly, a cry expressing an appeal for divine help save! help, we pray! in a liturgical usage, a shout of praise and worship hosanna, we praise you (MT 21.9) Louw-Nida Lexicon 33.364 ...


6

We could also probably argue the inverse of your question - that it became a symbol because of its usage in the Gospels, vs. being used in the Gospels because of its symbolism. Note that at least four of Jesus' disciples (Peter, Andrew, James and John) came from a background of professional fishermen, and this was an extremely common profession in the ...


6

Mark records the partial healing of the blind man to illustrate Jesus healing of his disciples partial understanding. Though the disciples see that Jesus is the Christ, they see only in part. Jesus is the Christ but not the Christ of their expectations. The two-part healing of the blind man (8:22-26) is sandwhiched between Jesus' rebuke of the disciples ...


6

The presence of synagogues hasn't been corroborated by much archaeological evidence. [1] However, synagogues in the land (as opposed to the diaspora) are mentioned a handful of times by Josephus, but all of them were located north, away from Jerusalem. This includes a synagogue (Josephus uses the term proseuche) at Tiberius in Galilee. (Josephus, Life ...


6

Is Matthew 5.5 in the same line of thought? To start, we should double check that Matthew 5.5 is relevant to interpreting any texts from the Hebrew scriptures ('Old Testament'). We want to be careful not to group it with those texts if they're not even using the same language. A simple way to verify this is to compare Matthew 5.5 with the Greek translation ...


6

There were two main qualifications, one is primarily cultural, and one is really universal. A host family (or person) would need to be hospitable. Abraham, Lot, and others throughout the Old Testament were "lovers of strangers" (to use an anachronistic expression derived from the Greek word for hospitality). In the ANE, hospitality and being a good ...


6

I Personally Believe Peter Denied Christ Exactly Six Times I did a study of this exact problem in my seminary studies for my M.Div., and just looking at the textual details and collating the accounts came to the conclusion that the answer is best resolved as seeing it as two sets of denials of three each, with each group of the three occurring prior to a ...


5

The Jewish leaders wanted to arrest and kill Jesus quietly because they were afraid of how the people might react. Matthew 26:3-5 says, Then the chief priests and the elders of the people were gathered together in the court of the high priest, named Caiaphas; and they plotted together to seize Jesus by stealth and kill Him. But they were saying, 'Not ...


5

The confusing passage here seems to be Matthew's account, which we will come to in due course. The other accounts, including the apocryphal Gospel of Peter give rather clear indications of timing, so we begin by examining them: When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices so that they might go to anoint ...


5

Another addendum to Susan's fine answer and ScottS's alternative account. All manuscripts are not the same, which is why the text critic's job is not simply that of counting noses. We have two possible scenarios an original shorter reading, which was subsequently expanded in transmission by the addition of "+ and fasting" after "prayer"; an original ...


4

I don't see an inherent conflict between these passages. Specifically, the John passage describes how both Andrew and Simon initially met Jesus; the Matthew passage describes how He called them as disciples. Matthew never claims that the event by the seashore was Jesus' first encounter with the brothers. Edit: In the account of John, Peter meets Jesus ...


4

Judaism of the time expected two messiahs to come. One of them was called Messiah ben David, and he was to be a warrior king who would run the foreigners out of Judea and Galilee. Messiah ben David would restore the kingdom to the Israelites and reign from the throne as God's right hand. The other was Messiah ben Levi (sometimes called Messiah ben ...


4

Looking at the previous chapter in John, I think the text implies it was a single event. John 11:2 says: This Mary, whose brother Lazarus now lay sick, was the same one who poured perfume on the Lord and wiped his feet with her hair. John doesn't say, "one of the women..." but "the... one". This implies (to me) that it was a unique event.


4

Jesus had the legal authority to cleanse the temple not because he was a rabbi but because he claimed to be like Solomon, the "Son of David" and thus the builder of God's house (2 Samuel 7). This is evident from a careful reading of the gospels through the lens of the Hebrew Bible. In the synoptics the temple cleansing is immediately preceded by Jesus' ...



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