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17

She was his wife all along. It's just that the word "wife" is used only when the woman is being referred to in relation to the man. In Hebrew the difference between "woman" and "wife" is just a matter of whether there is a possessive suffix. In English we don’t say, "her man" or "his woman" (except with certain connotations). Instead we change the words to ...


11

Dinah, Jacob’s only daughter, born by Leah, was a virgin. She went out to see the daughters of the land. In Gen. 34:2-3, the narrator then uses a series of vav-consecutives to describe a sequence of events. And Shechem, the son of Hamor: v. 2: וַיַּרְא אֹתָהּ ("saw her") וַיִּקַּח אֹתָהּ ("took her") וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֹתָהּ ("lay with her," i.e. "had ...


11

When considering the NET translation one should always consider the footnotes. 4 tn Here is another sound play (paronomasia) on a name. The sound of the verb קָנִיתִי (qaniti, “I have created”) reflects the sound of the name Cain in Hebrew (קַיִן, qayin) and gives meaning to it. The saying uses the Qal perfect of קָנָה (qanah). There are two homonymic ...


10

OP's source that describes these particles as "unknown word(s)" is highly misleading. אֶת־ = ʾet is a Hebrew particle used to mark the definite direct object of a transitive verb; וְאֵ֥ת = wəʾet is the conjunction waw "and" (a.k.a. vav) followed by אֶת. Their usage in Genesis 1:1 is typical of the thousands of ocurrences found in the Hebrew Bible. ...


10

The Distribution You should notice as well that the declaration of "good" varies as to when it is said within a day in Genesis 1 (all references unless otherwise noted are to chapter 1). Day 1 - it is stated once right after the creation of light (v.4a) while the earth was still without form (v.2-3), but before the dividing of light and dark (v.4b-5). Day ...


10

Interesting question! I'm not sure it admits of a definitive answer, but some observations suggest one possibility. As noted by OP, the typical divine response to each day's acts of creation tends to be "impersonal": וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב wayyarʾ ĕlōhîm kî-ṭôb and God saw that [it was] good This is the response in Gen 1:10, 12, 18, 21, and ...


9

Depending on its context, אֶרֶץ can be translated as ground, earth, land, piece of ground, territory, country, region, earth, or underworld.1 It's a very common word. This is not to say it can be translated as any of these in any context, the context (esp. specific phrases in which it's used) guides how it should be understood. Below is a visual ...


9

This is not the "same word" repeated and used in different ways. These are homonyms, i.e., two different words: the first אֶת־ is the sign of the definite direct object (= I. אֵת at link -- as discussed in relation to Genesis 1), which is untranslatable -- there is no English equivalent. When suffixes are added to it, it has the form ʾōt- or ʾôt-. the ...


8

The Idea in Brief The editorial dots in the text appear to indicate that Esau's kissing was insincere. Discussion One of the most remarkable resources available today for studying the Masoretic Text is the Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah by the late Professor Israel Yeivin. This handbook provides an excellent primer for understanding the details and ...


7

One variation that jumps out pertains to the statement, "And God saw that it was good." There is another very significant variation that points to another pattern in the structure of Genesis 1 and explains the omission in day 2: day 5 is the only day that lacks the parallel phrase "and it was so"1. The reason why this is significant and connected with ...


7

(1) [OP] Is it meant as a summary of what precedes it or as an introduction to what follows it? That's a very good question. On the face of it, it would appear to be an introduction. This formula, usually referred to simply as the "toledot" formula (from the Hebrew ...אֵלֶּה תֹולְדֹות = ʾēlleh tolədôt... "these are the generations of...") occurs a ...


7

It is clear from the text of Genesis 5 that Enoch was certainly viewed as being different from the other patriarchs. The major differences we can see within the text itself are that Enoch a) died early, and b) died in a manner different than the other patriarchs. The patriarchs listed in Chapter 5 all lived between 777 and 969 years, except for Enoch, who ...


7

The semantic range of אֶרֶצ ('eretz') revolves around the idea of "land" (cf. BDB). It can mean "land" vs. sea & air, "country", or "ground". The semantic range of אֲדָמָה ('adamah') revolves around the idea of "soil" (cf. BDB). It can mean the soil that you till, a piece of [tillable] property, earth as material substance, the visible surface of the ...


6

Kennedy summarizes his view on p. 5, and OP's sense that the paseq is a rough equivalent to how we use [sic] strikes me as about right. Kennedy's view, however, doesn't seem like a plausible -- or at least certainly not a sufficient -- explanation of this masoretic notation. On the one hand, there are just too many instances in which no such "warning" is ...


6

Jews reject the argument that Cain's sacrifice was insufficient because it did not involve blood, and they have some good arguments. Leviticus clearly spells out various "grain offerings," and there is even one example of a "sin offering" where the poor people were allowed to offer grain instead of an animal sacrifice. (See Lev. 5:11-13.) The traditional ...


6

It cannot be deduced that Naphtali had sex with Bilhah by the Biblical texts. 1 Chronicles 7:13 is not saying that Naphtali had his children with Bilhah. Bilhah is mentioned in 1 Chronicles 7:13 because Naphtali was her second son by Jacob, according to Genesis 30:1-8. Naphtali's sons can be rightly called her sons as well. In fact, some translations render ...


6

There are a number of indicators: Themes In the texts in Chapter 11 and earlier, all of the stories are about God's punishment of mankind. While the theme of salvation is present in these texts, there is also a theme of the depravity of mankind and their continual fall from grace. This theme isn't really present in the texts after Chapter 11 - only the ...


5

Onan's sin was entirely related to his refusal to perform his levirate duty. Quickly about the other three: Coitus interruptus is not masturbation. It is a (very unreliable) method of birth control. Onan was attempting not to get Tamar pregnant because he did not want to provide an heir for his deceased older brother. It was not "theft of Tamar's child." ...


5

Note: Since some gap theory arguments rely on phrasing in the King James, I will be quoting from the KJV unless otherwise noted. All verses will be examined in the KJV, other versions will be listed if they correct or add to the discussion. The Gap Theory, sometimes called the Ruin and Reconstruction Theory of creation, postulates that an unspecified amount ...


5

Rashi simply explains that the work begun on Day 2 was not completed until the middle of the third day. Hence, an uncompleted piece of work could not properly be pronounced as "good." At verse 11, during Day 3, God proclaims His creation to that point "good," and moves on and puts plants and trees into the earth he just created, also calling it good.


5

Gen. 7:6 says that Noah was (literally) ‘the son of 600 years’ ( בן שש מאות שנה) when the flood began. This is an idiom in Hebrew, and in other Semitic languages (e.g. Arabic and Syriac) meaning ‘600 years old’, that is: in the year beginning with his 600th birthday. You can compare the Syriac translation (Pšīttā) of John 8:57, which has ܥܕ݂ܰܟ݁ܺܝܠ ܒ݁ܰܪ ...


5

I think the key to translating Genesis 1:2 is not וְר֣וּחַ (we·ruach, "spirit"), but rather מְרַחֶ֖פֶת (me·rachepheth, "moved"). Better understanding the verb will help us better understand the subject. rachaph (the root) is a rare verb. It occurs just three times in the Old Testament: here, Deuteronomy 32:11: Like an eagle that stirs up its nest, ...


4

The Idea in Brief From the perspective of the Hebrew Bible, there are three apparent reasons why there is a “gap” of indefinite time between Gen 1:1 and Gen 1:2. Discussion First, the Hebrew Scriptures indicate that the Lord did not create the earth formless and void. The word for “create” (בָּרָא) in the following verse is the same word for “create” ...


4

Astrology as in the belief that the heavenly bodies control our fate is condemned in the Bible. But there's also astronomy, which is the science used to create calendars. The Sun and the Moon are for times and seasons and a good calendar takes both into account. Months, even today, are based loosely on the lunar cycles. The lunar cycle takes about 29.5 ...


4

The Idea in Brief When viewed through the lens of Jewish tradition, the suggested literal translation of the verse would appear as follows: Gen 2:12 And gold of the land is good: there [one finds] the yellow and the red stone. The second clause (after the colon) would modify and expand upon the first clause. In this regard, the Babylonian Talmud ...


4

Rashi cites the Midrash Bereshit Rabba (80:11) as saying that this was a son of Simeon with his sister Dena. the son of the Canaanitess: The son of Dinah, who had been possessed by a Canaanite. When they killed Shechem, Dinah did not want to leave until Simeon swore to her that he would marry her -[Gen. Rabbah (80:11)]. The Midrash Bereshit Rabba cites ...


4

John Gill (1) says about two places, a field near Damascus and the Mount Moriah: some say it was a field near Damascus; the Targum of Jonathan is, “he went and dwelt in Mount Moriah, to till the ground out of which he was created;” and so other Jewish writers say (F16), the gate of paradise was near Mount Moriah, and there Adam dwelt ...


4

This issue is addressed in detail in Richard Bauckham's commentary onmJude and II Peter, published by Thomas Nelson in its Word Biblical Commentary series. The literary link that you hypothesize is "The Book of Enoch," which is a very real work, and which is still accepted as canon by the Ethiopian Coptic Church. You can find the full text of the book of ...


4

The Hebrew word for man is אָדָם (adam) or אּישׁ (ish). The "out of man" (מֵאִ֖ישׁ meish, also transliterated me’iysh) in this passage derives from the latter form. Like in Gen 2:23, ish often carries a definite connection with males (as opposed to "mankind"), but has a variety of uses. You can explore the usage of all forms of ish here and meish here. ...


4

No. Only Reuven slept with Bilhah. When it says "בְּנֵ֥י בִלְהָֽה" ("[these are the] sons of Bilhah"), it is not referring only to the four sons of Naftali mentioned in verse 13, but to all of the descendants of Bilhah mentioned, from verse 1 to verse 13. This is parallel to the verses in Genesis 46:23-25: וּבְנֵי־דָ֖ן חֻשִֽׁים׃ וּבְנֵ֖י נַפְתָּלִ֑י ...



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