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11

Dinah, Jacob’s only daughter, born by Leah, was a virgin. She went out to see the daughters of the land. In Gen. 34:2-3, the narrator then uses a series of vav-consecutives to describe a sequence of events. And Shechem, the son of Hamor: v. 2: וַיַּרְא אֹתָהּ ("saw her") וַיִּקַּח אֹתָהּ ("took her") וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֹתָהּ ("lay with her," i.e. "had ...


10

The Distribution You should notice as well that the declaration of "good" varies as to when it is said within a day in Genesis 1 (all references unless otherwise noted are to chapter 1). Day 1 - it is stated once right after the creation of light (v.4a) while the earth was still without form (v.2-3), but before the dividing of light and dark (v.4b-5). Day ...


10

Interesting question! I'm not sure it admits of a definitive answer, but some observations suggest one possibility. As noted by OP, the typical divine response to each day's acts of creation tends to be "impersonal": וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב wayyarʾ ĕlōhîm kî-ṭôb and God saw that [it was] good This is the response in Gen 1:10, 12, 18, 21, and ...


9

According to Genesis, Noah's ark was box shaped. At 300 cubits long (450 feet), 50 cubits wide (75 feet), and 30 cubits high (45 feet), the shape is not round. Genesis 6:15-16 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. A ...


9

Good question. While no state of maturity for Adam and Eve at creation is ever explicitly stated in the Bible, there are some texts where we can infer something about their state. Adam is created to work the garden and care for it (Genesis 2:15). He then names the animals (Genesis 2:19, 20). This is not something that an infant could do. Adam and Eve are ...


9

Depending on its context, אֶרֶץ can be translated as ground, earth, land, piece of ground, territory, country, region, earth, or underworld.1 It's a very common word. This is not to say it can be translated as any of these in any context, the context (esp. specific phrases in which it's used) guides how it should be understood. Below is a visual ...


8

The "two" in some translations is an interpretative addition. It does not exist in the Hebrew of Gen 18:22, which is simply הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים ("the men"). The word "two" is added in those translations for "clarity" (which clarity can inadvertently create confusion, such as evidenced in your question). The idea is added because it is understood by many ...


8

Not Sure One Can Give a Dogmatic Answer, But... Scripture does not ever give a total number of Lot's daughters. Indeed, the plural "sons-in-law" does not even need to imply two, so (assuming they were married, not just engaged) it could also be that Lot had more than four daughters, two at home and however many were married. However, BDB states that the ...


8

The Idea in Brief The editorial dots in the text appear to indicate that Esau's kissing was insincere. Discussion One of the most remarkable resources available today for studying the Masoretic Text is the Introduction to the Tiberian Masorah by the late Professor Israel Yeivin. This handbook provides an excellent primer for understanding the details and ...


7

The key clause in Genesis 2:18 is אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ ʾeʿĕśeh-lô ʿēzer kᵉnegdô I will make for him a helper fit for him This noun (עֵזֶר, ʿēzer, the same root that the name "Ezra" comes from) appears 21× in the Hebrew Bible.1 It is indeed used for Israel's help from the LORD, unambiguously, e.g., in Ps 33:20[esv] Our soul waits for ...


7

First let me start with the basic outline of how old various manuscripts are. The Dead Sea Scrolls (in Hebrew) are the oldest manuscripts, and are roughly from between 200BCE and 100CE. Other Hebrew manuscripts are much much later, mostly from the 10th century onward with a little bit of 9th century material. The reason for this is that around that time ...


7

My question is: Is there a place in Scripture from which we can draw a dogmatic conclusion as to whether Adam was created as a fully developed man, or as a new born babe? Based on the nature of the literary genre of Genesis, and comparisons of Gen.1-3 with other origin stories of ancient near eastern literature I would say the answer to your ...


7

As far as I know, the only other place in the Old Testament where this same Hebrew term ("desire for you") is used, is in the next chapter, when God speaks to Cain. "If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door. Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it.” (Genesis 4:7, ESV) In the literary ...


7

I do not pretend to know the minds of the ESV revisers. But there is some justification for their rendering of Genesis 2:16, although exploring the (possible) reasoning cannot be done briefly. Here we go... Genesis 2:16-17 We need the text, and in this case it is imperative to work from the Hebrew, with the immediate context also in view (I'll stick with ...


7

One variation that jumps out pertains to the statement, "And God saw that it was good." There is another very significant variation that points to another pattern in the structure of Genesis 1 and explains the omission in day 2: day 5 is the only day that lacks the parallel phrase "and it was so"1. The reason why this is significant and connected with ...


7

(1) [OP] Is it meant as a summary of what precedes it or as an introduction to what follows it? That's a very good question. On the face of it, it would appear to be an introduction. This formula, usually referred to simply as the "toledot" formula (from the Hebrew ...אֵלֶּה תֹולְדֹות = ʾēlleh tolədôt... "these are the generations of...") occurs a ...


7

It is clear from the text of Genesis 5 that Enoch was certainly viewed as being different from the other patriarchs. The major differences we can see within the text itself are that Enoch a) died early, and b) died in a manner different than the other patriarchs. The patriarchs listed in Chapter 5 all lived between 777 and 969 years, except for Enoch, who ...


7

The semantic range of אֶרֶצ ('eretz') revolves around the idea of "land" (cf. BDB). It can mean "land" vs. sea & air, "country", or "ground". The semantic range of אֲדָמָה ('adamah') revolves around the idea of "soil" (cf. BDB). It can mean the soil that you till, a piece of [tillable] property, earth as material substance, the visible surface of the ...


6

It is the generally accepted view in Midrashic literature that G-d communicated to the Patriarchs which animals were clean (Heb.טָהוֹר) and which were unclean (Heb.טָמֵא) for the purpose of sacrifice. Evidence to support this is that the Patriarchs only sacrificed clean animals before (and after) the time of Noah. For example, in Genesis 4:4 Abel brings a ...


6

Since our goal is to understand what the author of the text meant by what he wrote, it is more helpful to look at how the event is described by the author, in the text than to get hung up on semantic possibilities, ANE discoveries, or personal beliefs. The author clearly meant it to be understood as a global event. In addition to the evidence you already ...


6

Kennedy summarizes his view on p. 5, and OP's sense that the paseq is a rough equivalent to how we use [sic] strikes me as about right. Kennedy's view, however, doesn't seem like a plausible -- or at least certainly not a sufficient -- explanation of this masoretic notation. On the one hand, there are just too many instances in which no such "warning" is ...


6

Jews reject the argument that Cain's sacrifice was insufficient because it did not involve blood, and they have some good arguments. Leviticus clearly spells out various "grain offerings," and there is even one example of a "sin offering" where the poor people were allowed to offer grain instead of an animal sacrifice. (See Lev. 5:11-13.) The traditional ...


5

In a related question, I surveyed some of the ancient Jewish and Christian literature that identified the serpent with the satan. This is probably the historical starting point for what would become a 'messianic' interpretation of the verse.1 It has also been argued that, on the basis of the Septuagint translation of Genesis 3.15, Jews were already reading ...


5

The Idea in Brief According to the Hebrew Bible, there are at least two people who have ascended into heaven: Enoch and Elijah. In the Christian New Testament, Jesus made the emphatic statement that no one (οὐδεὶς) had ever ascended into heaven with the exception of the one who had descended from heaven: that is, Jesus himself, who was to be "lifted up" ...


5

The Grammar is Clear The grammar does indicate that stars should be a direct object of what is "made." The verse in Hebrew is this (remember Hebrew is read right to left): And God made וַיַּ֣עַשׂ אֱלֹהִ֔ים two great lights אֶת־שְׁנֵ֥י הַמְּאֹרֹ֖ת הַגְּדֹלִ֑ים the greater light ...


5

You do realise (I trust) that the verb bārakh “to bless” is not actually the same word as the noun bεrεkh “knee”, though they are written the same in unvocalised Hebrew script. But, historically they do seem to belong to the same root. In most Semitic languages the verb b-r-k means “to bow down to, praise, bless” (said of a man/woman praising/blessing a ...


5

OP asks: I assume we have conflicting translation sources - what would be the best translation? Not exactly "conflicting translation sources": all the modern versions are working with the same sources, but drawing different conclusions about how that source text is best rendered. As ever, we need to set out those texts first of all, i.e. the first ...


5

There are some helpful reflections in the existing answers, although one flaw affects them all, and it is embedded in the question, as posed, itself... The Meaning of ṢDQ? The flaw is the assumption that Hebrew verb (in Gen 38:26) ṣādaq should be understood here as "righteous", where "righteous" stands for some kind of ethical purity next to holiness ...


5

The view one takes on the credibility of the assertion is going to depend largely on one's presuppositions and level of allowance for the Bible text to speak for itself. If the Torah (Law, i.e. "teaching" is the idea in Hebrew, not just the actual commands and prohibitions), which includes Genesis, was formed contra what critical scholars claim, and instead ...


5

Assuming a literal reading of the text (which is how the hermeneutic I hold takes Genesis), then in one 24 hour period, the 6th day of creation, Adam (and by extension on some of the points, Eve) was:1 Made fully capable of understanding language, as God spoke to them (Gen 1:28; cf. Gen 2:15-17) Made fully capable of sexual reproduction to multiply on the ...



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