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16

Answer As pointed out in the original question, the verb or adjective actually tells the reader if a noun should be understood as singular or plural, regardless of what form the word actually takes. So even though 'elohim is technically the plural form of the noun, because the verbs or adjectives attached to that noun are consistently in the singular, the ...


15

Although I disagree with your presupposition that the ages are merely symbolic, I think this is a great question nonetheless. The reason I say this is that regardless of whether the ages are historically significant, we should assume they are literarily significant. The Bible is literature, and each author (or redactor) of each book has crafted his work of ...


15

Joseph's sons were Ephraim and Manasseh, Gen. 41:51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: “For God has made me forget all my toil and all my father’s house.” Gen. 41:52 And the name of the second he called Ephraim: “For God has caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction.” These became, in a sense, Jacob's sons: Gen. ...


14

Satan is the father of Cain in that Cain acted like Satan. Genesis tells us that Adam (literally "the man") fathered Cain and Abel. Genesis 4:1 Now the man had relations with his wife Eve, and she conceived and gave birth to Cain, and she said, "I have gotten a manchild with the help of the LORD." The Hebrew grammar here shows that each step is a ...


13

Disclaimer on Perspective For the record, I do not hold to the Documentary Hypothesis (JEDP theory) as another answer here gives as a solution. I believe the Pentateuch was largely (if not perhaps wholly) inscribed by a single inspired author, Moses. As such, the Pentateuch should be looked at as a unity, including Gen 1:1-2:3 in relation to Gen 2:4 and ...


11

This is just by way of postscript and supplement to a (good!) answer already provided. The lists of tribes given in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament typically are as @Niobius describes: Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, replace both Joseph and Levi, most obviously in the tribal settlements during the "conquests" of Joshua/Judges. This is also how they ...


11

Frank Luke's answer is clear enough to realize Cain is Adam's son, no question about that. I want to address something else you state: Assuming that Cain is the person that Jesus is referring to I would not assume that, nor would I argue that is correct. I take Jesus's statement as wholly referencing "the Devil" himself (just as the verse states). He ...


11

The Distribution You should notice as well that the declaration of "good" varies as to when it is said within a day in Genesis 1 (all references unless otherwise noted are to chapter 1). Day 1 - it is stated once right after the creation of light (v.4a) while the earth was still without form (v.2-3), but before the dividing of light and dark (v.4b-5). Day ...


11

Interesting question! I'm not sure it admits of a definitive answer, but some observations suggest one possibility. As noted by OP, the typical divine response to each day's acts of creation tends to be "impersonal": וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב wayyarʾ ĕlōhîm kî-ṭôb and God saw that [it was] good This is the response in Gen 1:10, 12, 18, 21, and ...


9

The question is really an issue of what kind of cosmology the authors of the various biblical books assume in the course of their writing. When we read the Hebrew scriptures, the few books that have anything to say on the subject never explicitly say 'the earth is flat'. But if we can determine the overall shape of the cosmos as the different writers ...


9

The Hebrew language has numerous words that are grammatically plural but understood as singular. For example, the word חיים (chaim), meaning "life." See "The Various Uses of the Plural Form" in Gesenius' Grammar: http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Gesenius%27_Hebrew_Grammar/124


9

According to Genesis, Noah's ark was box shaped. At 300 cubits long (450 feet), 50 cubits wide (75 feet), and 30 cubits high (45 feet), the shape is not round. Genesis 6:15-16 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. A ...


8

In two of his books (listed below), John H. Walton examines Genesis 1.1-2.3 according to its similarities to other 'creation myths' in the ancient near east (ANE from here onward), verbal cues with contemporary or related Hebrew scriptures, and so on. He doesn't go much in the way of authorship or the originally intended audience, although possibilities can ...


8

In the original post Gen 11:10 is only partially cited, like this - Gn 11:10 When Shem was 100 years old, he became the father of Arpachshad… although in the OP answer, the rest of the verse is quoted: Gen 11:10 ...Shem was 100 years old, and begat Arpachshad 2 years after the flood. Of course, that end phrase ("two years after the flood") solves ...


8

These 3 enigmas or problems can only be solved if fatherhood and childhood (life) are calculated from conception forward. Otherwise the math won't work. The 3 problems above require certain information in order to reach 2 key facts. Then the math issues can be resolved. Who entered and who left the ark? How long did the flood last? (How long was Noah ...


8

Regarding Lilith Your question revolves around the discrepancy of details when reading Genesis 1-2 sequentially. In a strictly literal reading of these two texts together, it creates some obvious problems, one of which being the question of when humans, particularly men and women, were created. Some readers came to the idea that because Eve is specifically ...


8

The "two" in some translations is an interpretative addition. It does not exist in the Hebrew of Gen 18:22, which is simply הָֽאֲנָשִׁ֔ים ("the men"). The word "two" is added in those translations for "clarity" (which clarity can inadvertently create confusion, such as evidenced in your question). The idea is added because it is understood by many ...


8

Good question. While no state of maturity for Adam and Eve at creation is ever explicitly stated in the Bible, there are some texts where we can infer something about their state. Adam is created to work the garden and care for it (Genesis 2:15). He then names the animals (Genesis 2:19, 20). This is not something that an infant could do. Adam and Eve are ...


8

I do not pretend to know the minds of the ESV revisers. But there is some justification for their rendering of Genesis 2:16, although exploring the (possible) reasoning cannot be done briefly. Here we go... Genesis 2:16-17 We need the text, and in this case it is imperative to work from the Hebrew, with the immediate context also in view (I'll stick with ...


7

We cannot read NT passages into the Old Testament to explain difficulties - each passage must be understood in its own context. Otherwise I would read the second half of 2 Pet 3:8 into Genesis and say that Methuselah was almost a day old when he died. Instead, I'll give an OT example with similar wording to try to understand the meaning behind the Hebrew ...


7

Textual Evidence The text itself does not give enough information to deduce whether a volcanic eruption occurred or just a miraculous event (the literal interpretation), but commentators have long noted the similarity of this language with that of other volcano legends in early Semitic literature. The translation of 'brimstone and fire' (גָּפְרִ֣ית ...


7

The phrase appears not only in Gen 31:42: MT ... אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם וּפַחַד יִצְחָק ... = ... ʾĕlōhê ʾābî ʾĕlōhê ʾābrāhām ûpaḥad yiṣḥāq ... LXX ... ὁ θεὸς τοῦ πατρός μου Αβρααμ καὶ ὁ φόβος Ισαακ ... = ... ho theos tou patros mou Abraam kai ho phobos Isaak ... but also in a slightly variant form a few verses later, in v. 53: ESV ...


7

Because Jacob encountered God (YHWH) that Night The Meaning of Face to Face The phrase "face to face" in the Hebrew (פָּנִ֣ים אֶל־פָּנִ֔ים) uses the plural form of the word פָּנֶה (paneh; "face").1 However, it would not necessarily be proper to translate it then "faces to faces," because the word is always found in the plural form in Hebrew.2 This is ...


7

The key clause in Genesis 2:18 is אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ ʾeʿĕśeh-lô ʿēzer kᵉnegdô I will make for him a helper fit for him This noun (עֵזֶר, ʿēzer, the same root that the name "Ezra" comes from) appears 21× in the Hebrew Bible.1 It is indeed used for Israel's help from the LORD, unambiguously, e.g., in Ps 33:20[esv] Our soul waits for ...


7

First let me start with the basic outline of how old various manuscripts are. The Dead Sea Scrolls (in Hebrew) are the oldest manuscripts, and are roughly from between 200BCE and 100CE. Other Hebrew manuscripts are much much later, mostly from the 10th century onward with a little bit of 9th century material. The reason for this is that around that time ...


7

My question is: Is there a place in Scripture from which we can draw a dogmatic conclusion as to whether Adam was created as a fully developed man, or as a new born babe? Based on the nature of the literary genre of Genesis, and comparisons of Gen.1-3 with other origin stories of ancient near eastern literature I would say the answer to your ...


7

As far as I know, the only other place in the Old Testament where this same Hebrew term ("desire for you") is used, is in the next chapter, when God speaks to Cain. "If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door. Its desire is for you, but you must rule over it.” (Genesis 4:7, ESV) In the literary ...


7

One variation that jumps out pertains to the statement, "And God saw that it was good." There is another very significant variation that points to another pattern in the structure of Genesis 1 and explains the omission in day 2: day 5 is the only day that lacks the parallel phrase "and it was so"1. The reason why this is significant and connected with ...


6

An angel as a primeval enemy of humanity The Hebrew noun satan, along with related nouns and verbs, are semi-common in the Hebrew scriptures. These terms are used in a variety of contexts and refer to a variety of individuals. In Numbers 22.22,32, for example, it is an angel explicitly acting on God's behalf who is identified as a satan, meaning ...



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