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First let me start with the basic outline of how old various manuscripts are. The Dead Sea Scrolls (in Hebrew) are the oldest manuscripts, and are roughly from between 200BCE and 100CE. Other Hebrew manuscripts are much much later, mostly from the 10th century onward with a little bit of 9th century material. The reason for this is that around that time ...


The word שָׁמָיִם is always plural in Hebrew; there is no singular. (We call this a plurale tantum). Gen. 1:8 has שָׁמָיִם without the article and the next verse has the same word with the definite article. You can translate it literally as “heavens”, or you can paraphrase it with the English singular “heaven”. But to translate it as “heaven” in one verse ...

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