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18

This apparent contradiction can be resolved without the documentary hypothesis. As Bruce Alderman pointed out, Gen 17 is considered an E passage, yet it uses YHWH in the very first verse. Similarly, there are J passages that use Elohim (the very first J passage actually uses YHWH-Elohim). There are certain patterns in Hebrew thought for when one name ...


18

It's clear from what we are told in the early chapters of Genesis, that we are not being given a full account of every action—the focus seems to be much more on the moral and theologically significant issues. Given that, there is no direct textual evidence that reproduction did not happen before the fall, and given passages like Genesis 4:17, where no ...


17

The Hebrew words in question are עזר כנגדו (ezer kenegdo). The Hebrew root עזר means “help” and the word kenegdo comes from the root word נגד (neged). Neged in the OT always means "opposite" or "across from" and negdo means across from him. In Exodus 19:2, Israel encamp neged hahar, opposite to Mount Sinai. The form kenegedo doesn't appear anywhere else ...


16

Although I disagree with your presupposition that the ages are merely symbolic, I think this is a great question nonetheless. The reason I say this is that regardless of whether the ages are historically significant, we should assume they are literarily significant. The Bible is literature, and each author (or redactor) of each book has crafted his work of ...


16

Joseph's sons were Ephraim and Manasseh, Gen. 41:51 Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh: “For God has made me forget all my toil and all my father’s house.” Gen. 41:52 And the name of the second he called Ephraim: “For God has caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction.” These became, in a sense, Jacob's sons: Gen. ...


16

Answer As pointed out in the original question, the verb or adjective actually tells the reader if a noun should be understood as singular or plural, regardless of what form the word actually takes. So even though 'elohim is technically the plural form of the noun, because the verbs or adjectives attached to that noun are consistently in the singular, the ...


14

Satan is the father of Cain in that Cain acted like Satan. Genesis tells us that Adam (literally "the man") fathered Cain and Abel. Genesis 4:1 Now the man had relations with his wife Eve, and she conceived and gave birth to Cain, and she said, "I have gotten a manchild with the help of the LORD." The Hebrew grammar here shows that each step is a ...


13

The word "nephilim" as used in Gen 6:4 and Num 13:33 is simply an anglocizing of the Hebrew word nephiyl. If it were to be translated it would be simply "the fallen". this opens up a whole new hermeneutical question about how then should we interpret these people described both before the flood in Gen 6 as "the fallen" and then again after the flood when ...


13

Well modesty does mean much more in the Bible than what it means in our modern culture, but the best view I've seen is the maternal incest idea. "Uncover Nakedness" is used in Leviticus to describe heterosexual incest the "nakedness of the father" is identified with the "nakedness of your mother" (Lev 18:7-8) If this is about Ham's incestuous sex with his ...


13

Something interesting I noticed in the Hebrew of Gen 1 is that almost every verse begins with a waw-consecutive. That is a grammatical construct that indicates a direct, chronological sequence. That is, "A [wc] B [wc] C" means "A and then B and then C." It's very common in prose narratives, and is usually translated simply as "and." (My translations of ...


13

I disagree with Young's there. Hebrew syntax is very different than English, but I have difficulty seeing how Young got there. Tense in Biblical Hebrew is non-existent (Essentials of Biblical Hebrew, Kyle Yates). It is context that determines the time of the word. Hebrew uses "aspect" (An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Waltke/O'Connor) which is ...


13

Disclaimer on Perspective For the record, I do not hold to the Documentary Hypothesis (JEDP theory) as another answer here gives as a solution. I believe the Pentateuch was largely (if not perhaps wholly) inscribed by a single inspired author, Moses. As such, the Pentateuch should be looked at as a unity, including Gen 1:1-2:3 in relation to Gen 2:4 and ...


12

Why did Abraham stop there? From the narrative we can see that Abraham was clearly reluctant—out of pure fear, apparently—to question God's judgment. When asking for 45 in Genesis 18:27, he starts with: Now that I have been so bold as to speak to the Lord, though I am nothing but dust and ashes When asking for 30 in Genesis 18:30: May the Lord ...


12

Enuma Elish and Genesis have the strongest connection in their first lines--"In the beginning" vs. "When on high." Some say that Genesis is written as a polemic against Enuma Elish. They are very different. 1a. Enuma Elish starts with the elemental representatives of chaos, Apsu and Tiamat. They are the father and mother of the gods respectively. It ...


12

According to Genesis man was already intelligent before partaking the fruit of the forbidden tree. At that time, Adam had already named the animals. And upon seeing Eve, his words take the form of Hebrew poetry. This is bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh she shall be called woman for she was taken out of man. (Note the parallelism especially ...


12

The Bible consistently uses human terms to describe a non-human God. Our arms are the body part that perform most of our work, so God's work is described as being done with God's "hands". Our eyes are what we use to observe and take in information, so God's observatory faculties are called "eyes". Our mouth is the body part we use to communicate, so God's ...


11

There are some very close similarities but also some drastic differences. For similarities, there are a hero who builds a boat to preserve those chosen by a god. They build the boat with levels inside and seal it with bitumen. Both gather his family and animals in the Ark. The floods come. After the flood, they dismebark and sacrifice to the gods. Those ...


11

Those of us trained in mathematics tend to interpret words like "multiply" as if a mathematical problem was being stated. However, making an argument of this sort on the basis of the word רָבָה, to cause to increase, would be a stretch. Remember that even the root meaning of the English word multiply is to make many. Given the context, the emphasis on this ...


11

The answer to the who Cain married is likely found in the next chapter: After the birth of Seth, Adam lived 800 years and begot sons and daughters.—Genesis 5:4 (NJPS) In other words, Cain probably married one of his younger sisters. If not, he could have married a niece: a daughter of Seth or one of his other brothers. Of course, that changes ...


11

It's odd to me that this isn't literal. The early portion of Genesis (1-11) is usually very literal. In my studies, Numbers is more literal than Gen 1-11 (so literal that I called it "Greek vocabulary on top of Hebrew syntax"). Uses in the Greek The Greek word appears in the NT three times, all in Hebrews. (All scripture references are from the ...


11

This is just by way of postscript and supplement to a (good!) answer already provided. The lists of tribes given in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament typically are as @Niobius describes: Joseph's sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, replace both Joseph and Levi, most obviously in the tribal settlements during the "conquests" of Joshua/Judges. This is also how they ...


11

Frank Luke's answer is clear enough to realize Cain is Adam's son, no question about that. I want to address something else you state: Assuming that Cain is the person that Jesus is referring to I would not assume that, nor would I argue that is correct. I take Jesus's statement as wholly referencing "the Devil" himself (just as the verse states). He ...


11

Dinah, Jacob’s only daughter, born by Leah, was a virgin. She went out to see the daughters of the land. In Gen. 34:2-3, the narrator then uses a series of vav-consecutives to describe a sequence of events. And Shechem, the son of Hamor: v. 2: וַיַּרְא אֹתָהּ ("saw her") וַיִּקַּח אֹתָהּ ("took her") וַיִּשְׁכַּב אֹתָהּ ("lay with her," i.e. "had ...


10

Yes, it is the common practice to translate from the original language into the some word in the destination language rather than leaving it as the source language. Words like this are notoriously difficult to translate because the interpreters have to pick some word in the destination language that will make sense to the readers of that language. ...


10

Simply put, we don't know for sure, but we have clues! We have three known facts about the Nephilim: Their Name The world "nephilim" comes from the Hebrew word nephiyl, which means "the fallen". What did they fall from? The Bible isn't clear about that. It's possible that they fell from the sky (making them aliens) or from heaven (making them ...


10

Scholars have been raising doubts about Moses' authorship since the mid-1600s, when Thomas Hobbes noted that certain passages in the five books of the Torah seemed to indicate they had been added by a later writer. Genesis 12:6, "At that time the Canaanites were in the land." And they still were in Moses' time. Deuteronomy 34, the account of Moses' death, ...


10

There are several options for the etymology of Shaddai. My opinion is to take it from a word for "mountain." I can't see how the wikisource gets to the translation it does. That certainly varies from the BHS. I think what they are doing is taking the et before shaddai as the mark of the accusative (thus making shaddai the direct object of the verb). ...


10

The Distribution You should notice as well that the declaration of "good" varies as to when it is said within a day in Genesis 1 (all references unless otherwise noted are to chapter 1). Day 1 - it is stated once right after the creation of light (v.4a) while the earth was still without form (v.2-3), but before the dividing of light and dark (v.4b-5). Day ...


10

Interesting question! I'm not sure it admits of a definitive answer, but some observations suggest one possibility. As noted by OP, the typical divine response to each day's acts of creation tends to be "impersonal": וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב wayyarʾ ĕlōhîm kî-ṭôb and God saw that [it was] good This is the response in Gen 1:10, 12, 18, 21, and ...



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