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8

Short Answer: Yes, they would know what he meant The longer answer is that the letter to the church in Rome (1:7) was to a mixed group of Gentiles (1:13) and Jews (2:17). Most believe the church started from some of the Jews present at Peter's preaching during Pentecost, the "visitors from Rome" (Act 2:10; NKJV/ESV/NASB). Starting at 2:17, Paul begins more ...


7

They were primarily bi-lingual Note: unattributed links are to general knowledge found on Wikipedia and primarily for the historical background. Alexander the Great made his conquests during the early 4th c. BC, at which time Hellenization first occurred in the area (which in part actively sought the teaching of the Greek language). The Celtic invasion of ...


7

No Blunder at All The word "seed," whether Hebrew or English, is often used in a figurative sense to refer to one descending from another (and not normally to the actual sperm or egg of the parent that is the source of propagation). The word can have a singular or a collective meaning. Even a collective meaning, however, is viewing the individual elements ...


5

It is not about grammar but about the mystical interpretation of Abraham's seed that both the Hebrew and the Greek scriptures argue according to Pauline theology: He is not laying stress on the particular word used, but on the fact that a singular noun of some kind, a collective term, is employed, where τὰ τέκνα or οἱ ἀπόγονοι for instance might ...


4

It is helpful to understand the purpose(s) of the Mosaic Law. Quickly: It was intended to point people to their need for a Savior (Gal 3:19; Rom 5:20). It was intended to highlight their sinful nature (Rom 7:7). It taught many aspects of God and peoples' relationship to him. For examples, the sacrificial system was a reminder of humanity's need for a ...


3

Paul is not placing a curse on the Galatians but is defending his teaching against the Jewish law code. In Galatians 3:1-4, Paul calls the Galatians stupid because they have been informed that Jesus was crucified, and should have faith in what they heard, not in supposed benefits in observing the law. In the second part of verse 3:10, Paul is quoting from ...


3

When Yahveh offered the Torah (Law of Moses) to the Israelites, He dictated all the terms of the covenant (the Torah was the Old Covenant). One of the terms was that the Israelites would be "cursed" (אָרוּר) if they did not do everything commanded of them in the Torah. In Deu. 27:26, it is written, Cursed is he who does not confirm the words of this ...


3

Divine agency In many Ancient Near Eastern cultures, there was a political concept we call 'agency'. In this, the delegate or ambassador of a god simply spoke in the first person on that god's behalf. The use of agency is only touched on rarely in the broader historical narrative of Genesis–2 Kings, where we sometimes find the Messenger of YHWH speaking ...


3

The new testament ἄγγελος can mean messenger. For example, in Revelation Jesus says to the angel of the church of xxx write. This can mean either write this to the pastor or a guardian angel over the church. So here when it says The Law was instituted through the work of angels, could it possible mean the work of prophets? Clearly it was administered ...


2

It is clear, from the text in Galatians that you quoted, that the seed is Jesus. Jesus Himself clarified how this seed goes from a singular to a plural seed: 23 But Jesus answered them, saying, “The hour has come that the Son of Man should be glorified. 24 Most assuredly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it ...


2

Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father: —Galatians 1:4 “The present evil age” is the focus of God’s purpose of salvation. Classic Jewish thought, being apocalyptic, presents two ages in which a present sinful, decaying age is placed in juxtaposition to a ...


2

I believe you have misunderstood the context of what Paul is talking about in Gal 3:27-28. Taking the verse in context we see Paul has just been speaking of faith and the law and the verse before draws this out in that it speaks to all that believe, that they are "sons" through faith. He does not mention "daughters" but does endorse this concept and it is ...


2

In Rom 1:8-10, Paul's blessing refers to the strong faith of the Romans; in 1 Cor 1:4-6 likewise, as Paul thanks God for their faith; 2 Cor 1:2-7 differs only in that the blessing is in the form of words of comfort; 1 Thess 2-4 is again gives thanks for their faith. Compare this to Galatians, where Paul wishes the Galatians well (Gal 1:2) but omits the ...


2

You need to look at these verses in their context. The Εpistle to the Galatians begins as follows (as there are no serious textual or interpretational issues here I will cite only the KJV): 1 Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;) 2 and all the brethren which are with me, ...


2

And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast hearkened to my voice." Genesis 22:18 LXX kai eneuloghqhsontai en tw spermati sou panta ta eqnh ths ghs anq¢ wn uphkousas ths emhs fwnhs Note the use of the singular seed (spermati) Paul probably has in mind the LXX translation of the verse . Anyway, offspring can be understood ...


2

The angel Gabriel had already foretold that John would receive the Holy Spirit even before his birth. 13 ... Your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you are to call him John. 14 He will be a joy and delight to you, and many will rejoice because of his birth, 15 for he will be great in the sight of the Lord. He is never to take wine or other ...


1

No, not necessarily. I even doubt embryonic John was filled with the Holy Spirit, since the passage does not warrant that conclusion, since it clearly says ". . . and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit" (v.41, my emphasis) I believe a better question would be: "What is the significance of Elizabeth's exclamation, "'As soon as the ...


1

I don't think a "concrete," "certain," answer can be given ... However, perhaps there is a plausible explanation given the period, and given cultures at work: Titus, Timothy, Galatians, had notable issues regarding Gentile Christians and the controversy of Pharasaic/Rabbinic doctrines and traditions being taught in the Churches. In view of this, it ...


1

The translation of the New Testament in the New International Version (NIV) is based upon "the Koine Greek language editions of the United Bible Societies and of Nestle-Aland."(1) Specifically, it is based on the Nestle-Aland 27th edition. The Greek text of the NA27 states: ὅτι δέ ἐστε υἱοί ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς καρδίας ...


1

Interesting question, and several thought-evoking answers. One point that I find missing: John was raised in a dispensation wherein the Holy Spirit came upon people rather than when the Spirit came to abide within men. It seems that the text defining that he would be filled with the Holy Spirit even before birth must be considered in light of the applied ...


1

You've probably already consulted commentators on who these brothers/brethren may have been. If so, you likely realize your question is a difficult one to answer with any degree of certainty. Some commentators are not even sure if Paul was addressing churches in Northern or Southern Galatia, although the popular opinion seems to be he was addressing the ...


1

In Romans 1-3, Paul teaches the Gentiles without the law of Moses were guilty of sin before God and the Jews who were under the law of Moses were also guilty of sin before God concluding that all have sinned. Contextually Romans 3:28 refers to the law of Moses. Today we a justified by a system of faith that is separate from the works of the law of Moses. In ...


1

I've always understood it as the "manifestation of sin in the presence of the Law," but more specifically "the penalty of sin the the presence of the law." Here's how I've explained it in teaching this passage: If there were no speeding laws you could drive fast and recklessly — and although dangerous and potentially harmful, there's no "curse." But once ...


1

Israel was carried "On Eagles Wings" as she was led from Egypt, to Sinai where God visibly appeared to her and made an Everlasting Covenant with her; making her a chosen people unto Himself, and a great nation, which would strike terror and dread amongst her enemies, and be a sign to all the nations of the earth that God was with them. He sanctified her, and ...


1

Another possible (though less likely) interpretation is that the Greek word translated as especially in the ESV (malista Strong's #3122) should be translated as namely, or that is to say. This would give the sense: So then, as we have opportunity, let us do good to everyone, viz. to those who are of the household of faith. In other words, in this ...



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