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13

From the IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament: 8:17. "branch to the nose." There is an Akkadian expression (laban appi) that refers to a gesture of humility used to come contritely before deity with a petition. When this act is portrayed in art, the worshiper has his hand positioned in front of his nose and mouth, and is sometimes shown with a ...


8

First, if your time travel theory is correct, you might prove to some people (but not all) that Ezekiel book was written at God's direction. However, I think the time-traveling robot theory is not sustainable. The primary problem, it seems to me, is that the author intended the first chapter to be interpreted as a vision: In the thirtieth year, in the ...


8

Is it true? There is as much evidence to confirm Ezekiel's Zadokite status as to deny it -- that is, none. That Ezekiel is a priest is clear from the patronymic in Ezekiel 1:3 - יְחֶזְקֵאל בֶּן־בּוּזִי הַכֹּהֵן yĕḥezqēʾl ben-bûzî hakkōhēn Whether that should be "Ezekiel ben Buzi the priest", or "Ezekiel the priest, son of Buzi" doesn't really matter ...


7

The Hebrew for the first "mark well" is שִׂים לִבְּךָ , which is literally "give your heart". (The Hebrew for the second uses a different formation from the same roots -- וְשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ .) This is probably an idiom, like "give ear" in Deut 32:1. The Ezekiel passage follows "give your heart" with appeals to vision and hearing -- וּרְאֵה בְעֵינֶיךָ (see ...


7

In Genesis 3:24, it is a Cherubim - an angel of the Lord who guards the Garden of Eden. They are depicted in the tabernacle and on the ark of the covenant, guarding the Throne of God. In all places, they are associated with angelic beings and are part of the host of heaven. The difficulty in giving a verse calling a cherubim an angel is that angelos is a ...


6

This is an expansive question; as such, I've limited my answer to keep it from getting too much longer. Hopefully someone else can/will address historical interpretations of the imagery. Ezekiel writes during the time of the exile (1:2) to the people in exile (3:11). Much of Judah has already gone into Babylonian captivity, but at the time he begins ...


6

Within the Tanach/Old Testament there is no association of the angelic “adversary”, the satan¹ in the books of Job and Samuel, to be any sort of fallen or rebellious angel. Aside from the rather obscure verses about the nefilim in Genesis 6, I know of no Biblical verses that Jewish scholars take to refer to fallen or rebellious angels.² The verses in Isaiah ...


5

Zedekiah figured that he would not be taken to Babylon because Jeremiah said he would not see Babylon. It was his opinion that the prophets disagreed. The understanding is that Zedekiah refused to believe Jeremiah because Ezekiel had prophesied that Zedekiah should never see Babylon (he had no idea that his eyes would be put out). Thus Zedekiah doubted God's ...


5

I asked this question on Mi Yodeya and this answer says that these were different measuring utensils (standard weights). This answer is based on the Targum, an early translation into Aramaic; I don't have the linguistic skills to evaluate that myself, but it's generally held to be a faithful translation + clarifications (like this). When transactions were ...


5

You just about have your answer right in the question. The short answer is that moving eastward seems to relate to exile, while moving westward is a return to the garden and the presence of God. The long answer: The garden is planted in the east of Eden The garden is the primeval meeting place between God and man. It is the first sanctuary, where man is ...


4

When the sun rises, in the East, it banishes the darkness of the night. On the other hand, as the sun sets, in the West, it ushers in the darkness. Throughout both the Christian and Hebrew scriptures the images of light represent God/holiness/goodness and images of darkness represent sin/danger/evil. Here are just a few: 2 Samuel 22:29 - You are my lamp, ...


4

So far I've found two "surveys" (links below), both of which agree that there are four main interpretations of the vision: Literal (post-Exile) - Under this view the vision anticipates a literal new temple built after the exiles' return. There is little evidence, though, that any of the returning exiles considered the pattern given in the vision as ...


4

There are two basic questions that can be asked about Ezekiel 37: In the past - did Ezekiel witness a real and literal resurrection of dead bodies? In the future - does chapter 37 imply that there will be a real resurrection of dead bodies in future messianic times? The Talmud addresses both these questions in its analysis of Ezekiel 37. Question 1 - ...


4

Though it's not going to be popular, I would suggest that these are the preferred readings of the "Lucifer" tradition. Both here, and Isaiah 13-14, the historical and traditional attempts to reconcile prophetic language with a very concrete concept of a location (Tyre and Babylon, respectively) probably resulted in such an understanding. I'm still on the ...


4

It is certainly an idiom, so a literal translation won't convey the actual meaning of the phrase. Now, a literal translation of the Hebrew שִׂים לִבְּךָ (sim libbeka) would be "Set/ put/ place into your heart!" Again, the heart was considered as the locus of thought --- a function we now give to the brain. Thus, to place something into your heart was to ...


4

When Ezekiel was written The book of Ezekiel consists of thirteen sections, each dated by the number of years since 'the exile of Jehoiachin' (597 BC), beginning in the fifth year. The total span of time for Ezekiel's recorded prophecies was about twenty-two years (c. 592-570). Features of Psalm 137 This Psalm doesn't tell us exactly when it was ...


3

Actually, I've noticed a general inclination in commentaries to see this 'prince' as functionally superior to the pre-exilic kings. One author that I think summarizes this perspective especially well is Iain M. Duguid,1 who emphasizes the increase in the prince's duties as leader of Israel. It is thus already clear that we have to do with an exalted ...


3

We should distinguish between the idiom of the prophet and the later theological interpretations of the text. Ben Adam in Hebrew (Aramaic bar Enosh) expresses the distinction in ancient thought between the mortal and immortal actors in the world drama - between humans and gods in Greek and Roman thought, and between humans and God in Israelite thought. In ...


3

Ezekiel 28:14 in the Masoretic text and the Allepo Codex are identical. The Cambridge New English Bible (1970) translates the verse as "I set you with a towering cherub as guardian; you were on God's holy hill and you walked proudly among stones that flashed with fire" and in 16, "stones that flashed like fire". A. S. Hartom's Hebrew commentary (published ...


3

It is a common feature of biblical prophecy to conflate various events, people, places, etc. This is related to the theology of types: some events, people, places, etc, foreshadow and picture others. This gives rise to the "mountain peak" metaphor of prophecy: when looking down a range of mountains, it not easy to clearly distinguish them unless you have ...


3

I had thought about this when I read Gen 11:2 "As people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there" I asked myself "east" from where? The answer, as has been stated above, is "east from Eden". Eden is where God's Presence was. The way back to Eden was now protected by Cherubim: Gen 3:24 So He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim ...


3

Perhaps not the entire answer, but the Sun does rise in the east. So for practical reasons, the door of the tabernacle and temple should face east so that there is light for ceremonies early in the morning. (It would be facing the west if ceremonies happened in the late afternoon, I suppose.) It may be that the rising sun is invoked as a symbol of God's ...


2

Ezekiel's book focuses on the Temple: its desolation (1–24) and glorification (33–48). In the earlier section we see the Glory of God forsaking the temple and city as a necessary final step before Jerusalem could be laid waste (8–11). In the latter section we are shown the glory of God returning to the temple (43:4–5). Ezekiel did not introduce a ...


2

It is an interesting image which I've read a few commentators take different approaches toward. What is it that they are never to speak about again because of their shame? Assuming for a moment that it is not simply a blanket muteness then what subject is it that Jerusalem (and perhaps, by extension, all those who have received atonement) are to remain ...


2

As Soldarnal says in his helpful answer, this is an expansive question. So I thought I would add some supplementary comments to his helpful answer. I have no attempted to keep it short. What is the significance of this chapter? At the most basic level, the significance of this chapter is a powerful visual metaphor for the truth of the song of the Burning ...


2

Putting a branch to God's nose would likely be related to the kindling of God's nostrils. This expression is only used against a whole people when the crime is idolatry, with the exception of the crime of oppressing widows. James Jordan comments on this: “This is jealousy language. Potiphar’s nostrils were kindled when he suspected Joseph of attempting ...


2

From the more immediate meaning it may have been a simple way for God to humble Ezekiel for he had given him many visions about the future. The same thing was required of Paul on account of his ‘surpassingly great revelations’ (2 Cor 12:7). Yet as (כל הנביאים כולן לא נתנבאו אלא לימות המשיח Sanh. 99a) "All the prophets prophesied not but of the days of the ...


2

His Silence does not Necessarily Indicate Willingness Ezekiel is not as expressive of his emotions and states of mind as some of the other prophets, so his lack of protest does not necessary mean that he was a willing prophet. In the introduction to his commentary on the book, Daniel Block writes, Ironically, although the oracles are presented in ...


1

There are 2 views of this prophecy: 1) Is that it occured in 588BCE, 2 years after Ezekiel made his prophecy(590BCE); which sets the Destruction of Jerusalem at 607BCE, instead of 587BCE. Egypt, being carried off in captivity, and so are those reminants of Jersalem who fled to Egypt in defiance of Jeremiah's prophecy(Jer. 42:15,16,19; 43:10,11) This date ...


1

The Hebrew says "You [are/were]" but the spelling is unusual. In context we would expect a masculine form, but the word for "you" is in a form that is usually feminine (אַתְּ). If we do not take into consideration the vowels (which were not written in ancient scrolls, but only preserved by oral tradition), the word looks like it could spell אֶת, which can ...



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