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8

I've had some thoughts on this that don't quite answer the question, but are offered by way of response to the question. (As my comment suggests, my hunch is that the question may be unanswerable, but I'm not in a position to know that!) The response comes in three parts: first, some general observations about the Exodus plagues between science and biblical ...


6

This is a question that has caused problems with commentators and interpreters for centuries. Speaking most strictly, Cush and Midia are not the same place. Midia was on the Arabian peninsula (in the region of Jordan and Saudi Arabia today) while Cush proper was in the Sudan and Ethiopia region. In fact, the Septuagint uniformly translates Cush with ...


5

No, it wasn't a necessary thing to do (in addition to the actual circumcision) because the LORD had not commanded Zipporah to do it. The action and her words ("You [Moses] are a bridegroom of blood to me") certainly had a symbolic meaning, though that meaning, however, may or may not have been derived from "an ancient marital relationship formula recalling ...


5

Short Answer: The Israelites were enslaved in Egypt for 400 years. There is nothing in the chronologies that indicates anything different. Here's the chronology as provided in the Hebrew Scriptures: The easy calculations: When Abe was 100 he had Isaac When Isaac was 60 he had Jacob When Jacob (Israel) was 130 he and his sons went to Egypt NOTE: Jacob ...


5

An alternate translation is “assembling” rather than “ministering”; the relevant root is צבא, see, e.g., Wiktionary. Try this translation on for size: He made the washstand of copper and its base of copper; from the mirrors of the assembled [women], who congregated at the entrance of the tent of meeting. The translation of “ministering” is somewhat ...


4

REVISED The metaphorical school of interpretation of Scripture is perhaps an organized reaction against the overly literal school of interpretation espoused by those generally well meaning folks who say quite vehemently and with an air of finality, "I believe the Bible is literally the Word of God!" In other ...


3

So, in Exodus 34:33, did Moshe speak to the Israelites with a veil upon his face or without a veil upon his face? I think the short answer is "yes".* The longer answer follows. * That is: yes Moshe spoke with a veil (eventually); and yes, Moshe spoke without a veil (in the instance of Ex 34:33, etc.). See the end of this answer for a small excursus ...


3

The basis for those translations is that that's what the word means. Au contraire, "fifties" is a tenuous-at-best translation that is grammatically unnatural and contextually unnecessary. The only appearances of the word in this format, all of which clearly mean "armed" are: Joshua 1:14, 4:12 (contextually draw from Numbers 32) Judges 7:11 It's worth ...


3

The pre-Pauline references to the brother magicians are rare. Other answers draw attention to the mention of the names by Pliny in his Natural History (XXX.1.11). This was published at the end of the 70s, however, and so is only evidence that the names were current by Paul's time. There was a theory that the second century BCE Jewish historian Artapanus, ...


3

Exactly as others have said: these names appear in Jewish non-biblical tradition, specifically in the Targum of Pseudo-Jonathan to Exodus 7:11, as well as in later Hellenistic sources (like Josephus). Martin McNamara discusses it here, and there is a lengthy discussion of the Jewish and Greek sources here as well (page 1-71). As Frank Luke noted in a ...


3

THE WORD ITSELF The word translated "divide" can also mean "conquer" as in 2 Chr 32:1, or "split" as in Ecc 10:9m Num 16:31, "burst" (Job 32:19), breaking up fallow ground (Ps 141:7), or "dividing in two" (Zc 14:4, "separate" (Hab 4:9). The same word is used of the dividing of the sea in Ps 78:13 and Neh 9:11. Thus the word itself has a wide range of ...


3

The verb דִּבֵּר (dibber), which is conjugated in binyan Pi'el, is commonly followed by prepositions to indicate the person to or with whom the speaker is speaking. For example, אֶל (Gen. 8:15), לְ (Jdg. 14:7), עִם (Gen. 31:29), אֵת (Gen. 23:8), עַל (Jer. 6:10), and of course, בְּ (Hab. 2:1). In Num. 12:1 and 12:8, the context implies that Aharon and Miryam ...


3

The preposition ב can be translated in many different ways (in, with, through, against, while, when, for, by etc.) depending on how it functions in its context. In num 12:1 it makes good sense to translate it as "against" but the case could be made for translating it as simply "to" or "with." In v2, the case could be made for translating it as simply "to ...


2

According to Ezekiel the prophet, the cities of the plain, which included Sodom and Gomorrah, were destroyed because of the neglect of the poor and needy (Ez 16:48-50). In other words, the events in the Book of Genesis regarding Sodom and Gomorrah occurred BEFORE the revelation of the ten commandments and other laws given through Moses. Thus there was some ...


2

The text does not say what the women did when they were ministering. Possibly they were greeting people as they entered the temple? Possibly helped direct visitors or provided a cup of water to thirsty visitors? Maybe they just kept things clean and organized? Regarding the mirrors, it seems that the women were not very vain for otherwise they would not be ...


2

Gal 3:16-17 says that the law came 430 years after Abraham received the promise of blessing (in Gen 12). 25 years passed before he got his son Isaac, who lived 60 years until he got his son Jacob, who was 130 years old when he entered Egypt. That is, 215 years passed between Abraham received the promise, and Israel entered Egypt. Israel received the law ...


2

According to Pliny's natural history, in discussing the origin of magic in the world he mentions Jannes in relation to Moses. There is another sect, also, of adepts in the magic art, who derive their origin from Moses, Jannes, and Lotapea,Jews by birth, but many thousand years posterior to Zoroaster: and as much more recent, again, is the branch of ...


2

The question as posed appears to be confusing the Mari documents (which are of several kinds) with the Amarna letters. As one can see from the Mari link provided, it is clear that this is a site in what is now Syria - so, then, not a source of letters sent from Egypt. The letters sent from Egypt (also referred to in Webb's commentary, linked by OP) are the ...


2

Pi HaHiroth is the name of a place, and therefore it's proper literal translation is "Pi Hahiroth," just as the translation of Migdol (later in the verse) would be Migdol. However, the ancient Biblical translation Onkelos translates it as "Pum Chirasa," which is translating the Hebrew word for mouth (Pi) into the Aramaic word for mouth. So it would then ...


2

According to the commentaries of Rashi and ibn Ezra, it's a place name. Thus, it translates into English as "Pi Hachiros", much as the English word "Chicago" translates into French as "Chicagot" (or however they'd write it). Others may differ, though I haven't yet found any Jewish source that does so explicitly.


2

Not entirely sure that there is just one, or even two answers to this conundrum. I have pondered this on many occasions and done some research as well. Some of the answers I have come across are: Anger. Moses got angry and his anger lead him to not follow his instructions properly so I suppose you could say anger resulting in disobedience...? Pride. He ...


2

Exodus 22:18 (note it is 22:17 in the Hebrew text) is one of those texts which may be especially susceptible to anachronistic treatments based on putative translations rather than relevant historical and linguistic evidence. First, then, the text: Masoretic text: :מְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה mĕkaššēpâ lōʾ tĕḥayyeh You shall not allow a mĕkaššēpâ to ...


1

What we must remember is that this is the 2nd time Moses is addressing the "Rock". God's commandment to Moses was explicit,(Ex. 17:5-6) And the Lord said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go. 6 Behold, I will stand before thee ...


1

Numbers 20:12 gives two reasons: 1) Moses did not believe God and 2) failed to sanctify God. Moses knew striking the rock before had brought forth water and did not believe speaking alone would bring the same results. His attitude and statement "must we" indicate the failure to sanctify God. A parallel would be being baptized into Christ (Galatians 3:27) ...


1

We see the same problem when we consider the "clean" animals, which Noah included in his ark (Gen 7:8) intended for burnt sacrifices to the Lord (Gen 8:20). That is, the number of "clean" animals were tripled in the ark for the purposes of burnt sacrifice (Gen 7:2). How did Noah come to discriminate "clean" and "unclean" animals in the absence of the ...


1

The most common times chosen for the Exodus are sometime between 2670 BCE and 1759 BCE or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramids#Construction_dates or during the Reign of Ahmose I who ruled 1539–1514 BCE or Amenhotep II who ruled 1427–1401 BC or 1427–1397 BC. Most scholars believe that it was one of the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty The thinking ...


1

Apparently the "proper translation of Pi Hahiroth" depends on who you ask or what you read. Examples: BDB = "place where sedge grows". Strong's = "mouth of the gorges". Wesley's Notes = "the straits of Hiroth". There might be others.


1

The Hebrew word for "earth" here is the same used for "earth" in Genesis 1:1-2 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.2 The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. In Genesis 1:1-2 we find two things pertinent to your question. I. ...


1

The covenant in the Old Testament is best understood as a Suzerain Covenant, a common type of covenant (read: contract) from the ancient near east. Such covenants, when written out, followed a typical format of about five points: Preamble History Stipulations Sanctions Closing The book of Deuteronomy follows these five points quite closely. The Preamble ...



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