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15

The (relatively) small amount of bronze needed to make that serpent/snake (or נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת nĕḥaš nĕḥōšet) in the story of Num 21:4-9,1 even if it was as large as the monument now on Mount Nebo in Jordan,... ...would still have been quite small compared to the amount of bronze (let alone silver and gold) needed to make the utensils required for the ...


8

I've had some thoughts on this that don't quite answer the question, but are offered by way of response to the question. (As my comment suggests, my hunch is that the question may be unanswerable, but I'm not in a position to know that!) The response comes in three parts: first, some general observations about the Exodus plagues between science and biblical ...


8

See also the follow-up Q&A to this one on the Greek antecedents of the absolute use of ἐγὼ εἰμί in the New Testament which advances and nuances the discussion below. The Question This is an excellent question, and one that in different forms has been pondered by interpreters of John's gospel for centuries. My own way of capturing what is at stake here ...


6

It should not be assumed that since the modern Hebrew word for "crocodile" is tannin that the word meant the same thing in the time of Biblical Hebrew. Sometimes lingual shifts are minor, but other times they are significant. For example, in Biblical Hebrew, 'olam means "for length of days" (often understood as the closest term to eternity preserved in ...


6

This is a question that has caused problems with commentators and interpreters for centuries. Speaking most strictly, Cush and Midia are not the same place. Midia was on the Arabian peninsula (in the region of Jordan and Saudi Arabia today) while Cush proper was in the Sudan and Ethiopia region. In fact, the Septuagint uniformly translates Cush with ...


5

No, it wasn't a necessary thing to do (in addition to the actual circumcision) because the LORD had not commanded Zipporah to do it. The action and her words ("You [Moses] are a bridegroom of blood to me") certainly had a symbolic meaning, though that meaning, however, may or may not have been derived from "an ancient marital relationship formula recalling ...


4

The pre-Pauline references to the brother magicians are rare. Other answers draw attention to the mention of the names by Pliny in his Natural History (XXX.1.11). This was published at the end of the 70s, however, and so is only evidence that the names were current by Paul's time. There was a theory that the second century BCE Jewish historian Artapanus, ...


4

The "traditional" handling of Exodus 20:3-4 (in the numbering of the standard English translations) -- that the current v. 4 is its own clause/sentence, distinct from v. 3 -- ought to be followed for reasons of both syntax (the ways in which words are ordered to form sentences) and semantics (the meanings of the words). Syntax In this list of commandments, ...


4

Of course, אֱלֹהִים ʾĕlōhîm has a much broader semantic range than YHWH, as implied by the way the question is framed. They are by no means synonymous. The entry in Brown-Driver-Briggs lists a number of references where ʾĕlōhîm is used of one who stands in God's place (as HALOT also has it): Some references are regularly cited together here, especially ...


4

Under Jewish law he did not commit murder. The Egyptian was in Talmudic parlance a rodef -- a pursuer; i.e. one who was trying to kill another person or persons. In such instances, the pursued have the right to self-defense. Rava coined the , and third-parties have the right to kill the pursuer. Rava coined the famous Talmudic dictum (Babyl. Talmud, ...


3

After doing some research, it seems that the adjective טוֹב (tov) is sometimes used in reference to people in a manner referring other than to a personality trait (i.e., "kind"). For example, in Gen. 6:2, it is written, And the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that that they were [טֹבֹת], and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. ...


3

So, in Exodus 34:33, did Moshe speak to the Israelites with a veil upon his face or without a veil upon his face? I think the short answer is "yes".* The longer answer follows. * That is: yes Moshe spoke with a veil (eventually); and yes, Moshe spoke without a veil (in the instance of Ex 34:33, etc.). See the end of this answer for a small excursus ...


3

Exodus 22:18 (note it is 22:17 in the Hebrew text) is one of those texts which may be especially susceptible to anachronistic treatments based on putative translations rather than relevant historical and linguistic evidence. First, then, the text: Masoretic text: :מְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה mĕkaššēpâ lōʾ tĕḥayyeh You shall not allow a mĕkaššēpâ to ...


2

The question as posed appears to be confusing the Mari documents (which are of several kinds) with the Amarna letters. As one can see from the Mari link provided, it is clear that this is a site in what is now Syria - so, then, not a source of letters sent from Egypt. The letters sent from Egypt (also referred to in Webb's commentary, linked by OP) are the ...


2

Pi HaHiroth is the name of a place, and therefore it's proper literal translation is "Pi Hahiroth," just as the translation of Migdol (later in the verse) would be Migdol. However, the ancient Biblical translation Onkelos translates it as "Pum Chirasa," which is translating the Hebrew word for mouth (Pi) into the Aramaic word for mouth. So it would then ...


2

According to the commentaries of Rashi and ibn Ezra, it's a place name. Thus, it translates into English as "Pi Hachiros", much as the English word "Chicago" translates into French as "Chicagot" (or however they'd write it). Others may differ, though I haven't yet found any Jewish source that does so explicitly.


2

Not entirely sure that there is just one, or even two answers to this conundrum. I have pondered this on many occasions and done some research as well. Some of the answers I have come across are: Anger. Moses got angry and his anger lead him to not follow his instructions properly so I suppose you could say anger resulting in disobedience...? Pride. He ...


2

Moses wasn't just anyone. Remember he was raised in Pharaoh's court (i.e. this Pharaoh's father's court). He was basically the adopted nephew of this Pharaoh since he was adopted by his father's daughter. (Exodus 2:5)


2

The Idea in Brief Both the oral and written Jewish tradition (as codified in pre-Talmudic Midrashim and the Masoretic Text, respectively) indicate that the blindness, deafness, and muteness in this verse were that of the Egyptians, who would be unresponsive to the message of Moses to release the Jewish people from captivity. Discussion The first place to ...


2

The LXX translation does not follow oral Jewish tradition as found in the Jewish Talmud, but the LXX translation is not inaccurate either. The relevant passage from Philo occurs as follows. Please click to enlarge. The suggestion is that authority on earth derives its authority from heaven. In this respect, Philo even indicates that parental authority ...


2

I'm going to make this simple because a lot of folks want to over-complicate things. The translation you use -- "Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people," simply doesn't make any sense when Deuteronomy 12:2-3 teaches that one must destroy idols and things associated with idol worship -- which strikes me as a good way to revile the ...


2

There are several major lines of interpretation: A number of commentators over the years1 have made a connection between this incident and the provision in Numbers 5:11-31, wherein a woman suspected of adultery is given a mixture of water and dust to drink that are to cause visible outworkings of her guilt. The connection between idolatry and adultery ...


2

The Idea in Brief The image of blood and water appears in the Red Sea crossing in addition to the crossing of the River Jordan into the Promised Land. That is, each crossing occurred in tandem with the Passover Sacrifice and Feast, and therefore appear as parallel chronological events (since they occurred in tandem with Passover). In the former instance, ...


1

To correctly understand the passage, one must understand the context, Ex. 22:22-24, Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child. 23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry; 24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your ...


1

The question of the semantics of the verb פָּסַח‎ = pāsaḥ is a difficult one, in part because it so quickly gets lost and subsumed in discussion of the noun pesaḥ (the name of the feast/festival), and in part because the verb has its own inherent difficulties. There has long been a question as to whether there should be one or two distinct "roots" behind ...


1

From Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers: Exodus 22:18 [cf. Deuteronomy 18:10-11] - Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.—The word translated [by some Bible versions] “witch” . . . is the feminine singular [i.e., sorceress of that rendered by “sorcerers” in Exodus 7:11, and means “a mutterer of charms.” The use of the feminine form can only be ...


1

What we must remember is that this is the 2nd time Moses is addressing the "Rock". God's commandment to Moses was explicit,(Ex. 17:5-6) And the Lord said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go. 6 Behold, I will stand before thee ...


1

Numbers 20:12 gives two reasons: 1) Moses did not believe God and 2) failed to sanctify God. Moses knew striking the rock before had brought forth water and did not believe speaking alone would bring the same results. His attitude and statement "must we" indicate the failure to sanctify God. A parallel would be being baptized into Christ (Galatians 3:27) ...


1

We see the same problem when we consider the "clean" animals, which Noah included in his ark (Gen 7:8) intended for burnt sacrifices to the Lord (Gen 8:20). That is, the number of "clean" animals were tripled in the ark for the purposes of burnt sacrifice (Gen 7:2). How did Noah come to discriminate "clean" and "unclean" animals in the absence of the ...


1

The most common times chosen for the Exodus are sometime between 2670 BCE and 1759 BCE or http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramids#Construction_dates or during the Reign of Ahmose I who ruled 1539–1514 BCE or Amenhotep II who ruled 1427–1401 BC or 1427–1397 BC. Most scholars believe that it was one of the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty The thinking ...



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