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17

The (relatively) small amount of bronze needed to make that serpent/snake (or נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת nĕḥaš nĕḥōšet) in the story of Num 21:4-9,1 even if it was as large as the monument now on Mount Nebo in Jordan,... ...would still have been quite small compared to the amount of bronze (let alone silver and gold) needed to make the utensils required for the ...


8

See also the follow-up Q&A to this one on the Greek antecedents of the absolute use of ἐγὼ εἰμί in the New Testament which advances and nuances the discussion below. The Question This is an excellent question, and one that in different forms has been pondered by interpreters of John's gospel for centuries. My own way of capturing what is at stake here ...


6

It should not be assumed that since the modern Hebrew word for "crocodile" is tannin that the word meant the same thing in the time of Biblical Hebrew. Sometimes lingual shifts are minor, but other times they are significant. For example, in Biblical Hebrew, 'olam means "for length of days" (often understood as the closest term to eternity preserved in ...


6

This is a question that has caused problems with commentators and interpreters for centuries. Speaking most strictly, Cush and Midia are not the same place. Midia was on the Arabian peninsula (in the region of Jordan and Saudi Arabia today) while Cush proper was in the Sudan and Ethiopia region. In fact, the Septuagint uniformly translates Cush with ...


5

Suzerain covenants Modern contracts typically follow a certain format: the parties of the contract are identified, the terms and conditions are defined, certain penalties are defined, and the parties (and witnesses, if necessary) sign their agreement. There is a similarly formatted ancient Near Eastern contract, called a suzerain covenant, though these ...


5

The "traditional" handling of Exodus 20:3-4 (in the numbering of the standard English translations) -- that the current v. 4 is its own clause/sentence, distinct from v. 3 -- ought to be followed for reasons of both syntax (the ways in which words are ordered to form sentences) and semantics (the meanings of the words). Syntax In this list of commandments, ...


5

Of course, אֱלֹהִים ʾĕlōhîm has a much broader semantic range than YHWH, as implied by the way the question is framed. They are by no means synonymous. The entry in Brown-Driver-Briggs lists a number of references where ʾĕlōhîm is used of one who stands in God's place (as HALOT also has it): Some references are regularly cited together here, especially ...


4

Under Jewish law he did not commit murder. The Egyptian was in Talmudic parlance a rodef -- a pursuer; i.e. one who was trying to kill another person or persons. In such instances, the pursued have the right to self-defense. Rava coined the , and third-parties have the right to kill the pursuer. Rava coined the famous Talmudic dictum (Babyl. Talmud, ...


3

After doing some research, it seems that the adjective טוֹב (tov) is sometimes used in reference to people in a manner referring other than to a personality trait (i.e., "kind"). For example, in Gen. 6:2, it is written, And the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that that they were [טֹבֹת], and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. ...


3

The LXX translation does not follow oral Jewish tradition as found in the Jewish Talmud, but the LXX translation is not inaccurate either. The relevant passage from Philo occurs as follows. Please click to enlarge. The suggestion is that authority on earth derives its authority from heaven. In this respect, Philo even indicates that parental authority ...


3

Exodus 22:18 (note it is 22:17 in the Hebrew text) is one of those texts which may be especially susceptible to anachronistic treatments based on putative translations rather than relevant historical and linguistic evidence. First, then, the text: Masoretic text: :מְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה mĕkaššēpâ lōʾ tĕḥayyeh You shall not allow a mĕkaššēpâ to ...


3

Because the writer of the Exodus passage believed it, and the writer of the Genesis passages believed differently. While scholars continue to debate its exact shape, source criticism – in Documentary, Supplementary, Fragmentary, or other form – continues to be among the most helpful tools for examining apparent inconsistencies of exactly this sort in the ...


3

According to Rashi who quotes the Talmud (Menahot 78a), Exodus 29:2 is referring to three different types of מַצׇּה: לֶחֶם מַצּוֹת - Scalded (unleavened) dough (רבוכה) חַלֹּת מַצֹּת - Unleavened loaves רְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת - Unleavened wafers Moses put equal amounts of oil into all three types of matzah, and ten loaves of each type were brought during the ...


2

There is no way to know for certain, but most likely Aaron was old enough that Pharaoh's command, “Every son that is born to the Hebrews you shall cast into the Nile..." (Ex. 1:22), did not come into effect until after Aaron's birth. In Exodus 7:7 we find out that Aaron is 3 years older than Moses, "Now Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three ...


2

The Cosmic Temple Among others, both John Walton (Genesis 1 as Ancient Cosmology) and G.K. Beale (The Temple and the Church's Mission) argue that the cosmos and Eden are constructed in Genesis 1-2 in terminology fitting of a temple. Beale in an article titled, "Eden, The Temple, And The Church's Mission In The New Creation", elaborates at least nine points ...


2

The question of the semantics of the verb פָּסַח‎ = pāsaḥ is a difficult one, in part because it so quickly gets lost and subsumed in discussion of the noun pesaḥ (the name of the feast/festival), and in part because the verb has its own inherent difficulties. There has long been a question as to whether there should be one or two distinct "roots" behind ...


2

Not entirely sure that there is just one, or even two answers to this conundrum. I have pondered this on many occasions and done some research as well. Some of the answers I have come across are: Anger. Moses got angry and his anger lead him to not follow his instructions properly so I suppose you could say anger resulting in disobedience...? Pride. He ...


2

Moses wasn't just anyone. Remember he was raised in Pharaoh's court (i.e. this Pharaoh's father's court). He was basically the adopted nephew of this Pharaoh since he was adopted by his father's daughter. (Exodus 2:5)


2

There are several major lines of interpretation: A number of commentators over the years1 have made a connection between this incident and the provision in Numbers 5:11-31, wherein a woman suspected of adultery is given a mixture of water and dust to drink that are to cause visible outworkings of her guilt. The connection between idolatry and adultery ...


2

I'm going to make this simple because a lot of folks want to over-complicate things. The translation you use -- "Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people," simply doesn't make any sense when Deuteronomy 12:2-3 teaches that one must destroy idols and things associated with idol worship -- which strikes me as a good way to revile the ...


2

The Idea in Brief Both the oral and written Jewish tradition (as codified in pre-Talmudic Midrashim and the Masoretic Text, respectively) indicate that the blindness, deafness, and muteness in this verse were that of the Egyptians, who would be unresponsive to the message of Moses to release the Jewish people from captivity. Discussion The first place to ...


2

The Idea in Brief The image of blood and water appears in the Red Sea crossing in addition to the crossing of the River Jordan into the Promised Land. That is, each crossing occurred in tandem with the Passover Sacrifice and Feast, and therefore appear as parallel chronological events (since they occurred in tandem with Passover). In the former instance, ...


2

The angel appears in the bush alone, we are told nothing of God being there. Angels appear to many in scripture without the presence of fire, so it seems unnecessary to think the bush is burning because if the angel, but rather it is an additional sign to Moses that it burned without being consumed. Moses turning his face from the angel is not unusual ...


2

I agree with the earlier response that G-d was not standing with the angel in the burning bush. A common way by which G-d communicates with the Patriarchs in Genesis and Exodus is through an angel. As the Hebrew word מַלְאָךְ can mean either "angel" or "messenger," it is clear even in antiquity that G-d communicated through angels. A few examples will ...


2

Exodus 12:37 states that there were 600,000 men in the Exodus from Egypt. There must have been a similar number of women, plus children, so the estimate of two million seems reasonable, based on the Book of Exodus. In Ancient Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, page 408, Donald Redford gives the entire Egypt population in the Late Bronze Age as only ...


1

Crucial pieces in this puzzle that I believe you are missing, scripture states many times that the Children of Israel walked in the MIDST OF THE SEA in Exodus 14 v 22, and God repeats this virtually word by word, 7 verses later in Chapter 14 v 29 Yes, congealed water is ice.... Why can so many not see the reality of what is said so plainly in scripture? Ice ...


1

I think that the term "Red Sea" is a mis-translation of the term "Reed Sea". This was a small body of water that was north of the usually proposed route that Moses took. It no longer exists as a result of the creation of the Suez Canal. It was a shallow boggy area. It does not strain ones credulity nearly as much to imagine the events of the crossing as ...


1

To correctly understand the passage, one must understand the context, Ex. 22:22-24, Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child. 23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry; 24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your ...


1

While it is unclear whether a nomadic people would have the means to mine, smelt, and smith metals sufficient to the needs mentioned in Exodus and Numbers, the Israelites may have accessed such technology and materials through their Midian and Kenite relations who lived nearby. Both groups were known for their mining and metalworking skills.[1] The ...


1

From Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers: Exodus 22:18 [cf. Deuteronomy 18:10-11] - Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.—The word translated [by some Bible versions] “witch” . . . is the feminine singular [i.e., sorceress of that rendered by “sorcerers” in Exodus 7:11, and means “a mutterer of charms.” The use of the feminine form can only be ...



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