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13

Suzerain covenants Modern contracts typically follow a certain format: the parties of the contract are identified, the terms and conditions are defined, certain penalties are defined, and the parties (and witnesses, if necessary) sign their agreement. There is a similarly formatted ancient Near Eastern contract, called a suzerain covenant, though these ...


10

The Tetragram in Hebrew is a proper name, and names do not have articles in Hebrew any more than they do in English. The article "the" arises in OP's KJV example because of the convention (beginning as early as the Septuagint) of representing the divine name by the word "Lord", which then has the knock on effect of requiring an article in English usage. ...


8

I don't know of any scholar who denies that Hammurabi wrote a code of laws before Moses received the Ten Commandments and the accompanying law. So if the question is: Did Moses invent the idea of having a written code of laws, the answer is clearly "no". But if the question is: Were the specific set of laws in the Ten Commandments et al not really written ...


7

The Ark (Heb. אָרוֹן) was known as "the Ark of the testimony" (אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת cp. Exo. 25:22) and "the Ark of the covenant" (אֲרוֹן הַבְּרִית cp. Jos. 3:6) (among other things) since the two stone tablets contained therein were known as "the two tablets of the testimony" (שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת הָעֵדֻת; cp. Exo. 31:18) and "the two tablets of the covenant" (שְׁנֵי ...


7

There's a subtle shift in how the narrative refers to Pharaoh and the army part way through the account. We can see the first method in the first question: Q: Does the Pharaoh actually leave with the army to chase the Israelites? A: Yes Exodus 14:7 So he made ready his chariot and took his army with him, (ESV) The Pharaoh is spoken of directly. Prior ...


7

Frequently, an "Angel of the LORD" will appear in passages throughout the Bible to bring a message to an individual. In these instances, the speech used is always that of God himself. Tradition held that messages came with the full authority, weight, and force of the person who sent it. This messenger was an extension of the originator of the messenger ...


5

Is there any evidence that this phrase should be translated 'ganja'? No. Exodus 30:23 (ESV) reads: Take the finest spices: of liquid myrrh 500 shekels, and of sweet-smelling cinnamon half as much, that is, 250, and 250 of aromatic cane (qənêh-bōśem) The OP points out: there is a speculation that kaneh bosem is a plural form of kaneh ...


4

Since I have given Alan a bit of a hard time, I feel somewhat obligated to provide an answer. :) Context Like all passages, the key to understanding Exodus 32:26-29 is to look at the broader context. In the previous chapters of Exodus, Moses has lead the Israelites out of Egypt through a series of miraculous events. He has now gone up Mount Sinai to get ...


4

Exo 3:14 and 15 has two verbal forms of the same stem (hwh). The answer in 3:14 is explanatory, but in 3:15 it is literal—YHWH is given as the name. Moses asked about the name and the explanatory reply was “אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה” (ʾehyeh ʾăšer ʾehyeh)—I am that I am or I will be what I will be (S. R. Driver considers it idem per idem construction as in Exo ...


4

The Ten commandments were specifically addressed to the Israelites, in Exodus 20:2. The author had no concept, at that time, of them being applied to all of humanity: Exodus 20:2: "I, the LORD, am your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, that place of slavery.


4

It is mostly irrelevant whether the perpetrator of a crime has one eye or two, because Exodus 21:23-25 are referring to monetary penalties, except in the case of murder. Here is the text from Exodus 21:23-25, all three verses of which are important in understanding the answer to your question: 23: אִם אָסוֹן יׅהְיֶה וְנָתַתָּה נֶפֶשׁ תַּחַת נָפֶשׁ 24: ...


3

According to Rashi who quotes the Talmud (Menahot 78a), Exodus 29:2 is referring to three different types of מַצׇּה: לֶחֶם מַצּוֹת - Scalded (unleavened) dough (רבוכה) חַלֹּת מַצֹּת - Unleavened loaves רְקִיקֵי מַצּוֹת - Unleavened wafers Moses put equal amounts of oil into all three types of matzah, and ten loaves of each type were brought during the ...


3

The Cosmic Temple Among others, both John Walton (Genesis 1 as Ancient Cosmology) and G.K. Beale (The Temple and the Church's Mission) argue that the cosmos and Eden are constructed in Genesis 1-2 in terminology fitting of a temple. Beale in an article titled, "Eden, The Temple, And The Church's Mission In The New Creation", elaborates at least nine points ...


3

It was not uncommon for people in the Bible to go under multiple monikers. Abram was also known as Abrham (Gen 17:5), Sarah was also known as Sarai (Genesis 17:15), Jacob was also known as Israel (Genesis 35:10) and so forth. This simply appears to be another one of those instances. Names in Hebrew culture often had significance and names were often ...


3

Text Exodus 1:6-22 (ESV): 6 Then Joseph died, and all his brothers and all that generation. 7 But the people of Israel were fruitful and increased greatly; they multiplied and grew exceedingly strong, so that the land was filled with them. 8 Now there arose a new king over Egypt, who did not know Joseph. 9 And he said to his people, “Behold, the ...


3

Paul does make various allusions to the Book of Exodus, so it is also possible in this case. However, the context of Exodus 34:15 is different to that of 1 Corinthians 10:27 and the message is different. Any allusion to Exodus would have been for the purpose of correcting or redefining the restrictions imposed by the earlier text. In Exodus, Moses is warned ...


3

To put this as a purely linguistic question: Hebrew qānē is the same word as Sumerian gin, Akkadian qanū, Ugaritic qn, Greek κάννα, Latin canna, all meaning “reed” or “cane”. Greek κάνναβις, Latin cannabis, English “hemp” is a different word, perhaps ultimately from Sumerian kunibu, all meaning “hemp”. These two words cannot very well be connected.


2

tl;dr There is no basis for "bride" in the original Hebrew. The Hebrew text of Exodus 11:1b is: כְּשַׁ֨לְּח֔וֹ כָּלָ֕ה גָּרֵ֛שׁ יְגָרֵ֥שׁ אֶתְכֶ֖ם מִזֶּֽה׃ (Westminster Leningrad Codex) The word which is translated by REB as "bride" is the word "כָּלָה". The word "כָּלָה" (vocalized here with a qamatz below the kaph and no dagesh in the lamedh) means ...


2

There is no way to know for certain, but most likely Aaron was old enough that Pharaoh's command, “Every son that is born to the Hebrews you shall cast into the Nile..." (Ex. 1:22), did not come into effect until after Aaron's birth. In Exodus 7:7 we find out that Aaron is 3 years older than Moses, "Now Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three ...


2

The fact that the commandments finish with the people complaining to Moses implies he has not yet gone back up? So do I understand correctly, the ten commandments are delivered by Yahweh on the mountain, while Moses is still at the bottom of the mountain? Where is "between the LORD and you[the people]"? First let's address the second question ...


2

While not stated directly, the Sabbath is evidence that holy ground first occurred during creation. The Sabbath is holy to God's people and it is holy to the LORD: And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak also to the children of Israel, saying: ‘Surely My Sabbaths you shall keep, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ...


2

The Hebrew text states, כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יהוה אֶל מֹשֶׁה וַיַּנִּיחֵהוּ אַהֲרֹן לִפְנֵי הָעֵדֻת לְמִשְׁמָרֶת which is translated as, As Yavheh commanded Moses, so Aaron placed it before/in front of/in the presence of the testimony, to be kept. The preposition לִפְנֵי means "before, in front of, in the presence of." Gesenius, p. 680, wrote, It ...


2

The Idea in Brief The LXX speaks of two outcomes: one regarding the developed fetus and one undeveloped. The Masoretic Text however simply presents the fetuses in the plural, and in this respect there is no amplification or clarification between developed and undeveloped in the Masoretic Text. In summary, if the Masoretic Text carries the original literary ...


2

The complete record of the birth of Moses has been divided into two parts. Details covering the birth are placed first (Exodus 2:1-10); his genealogy is second (Exodus 6:14-25). Each of the two records serves as a type of introduction to the two primary phases of his life. After his birth Moses lived in Pharaoh’s house as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter. After ...


2

In one way, Ezekiel is not intentionally contradicting Exodus 20 (or the equivalent but possibly earlier Deuteronomy 5:9), but rather drawing a parallel to Deuteronomy 24:16: Deuteronomy 24:16: The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers: every man shall be put to death for his own ...


1

יט וַאֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי כִּי לֹא יִתֵּן אֶתְכֶם מֶלֶךְ מִצְרַיִם לַהֲלֹךְ וְלֹא בְּיָד חֲזָקָה Regarding the phrase וְלֹא בְּיָד חֲזָקָה in Exo. 3:19, Keil & Delitzsch wrote (pp. 444-445), “not even by means of a strong hand;” “except through great power” is not the true rendering, ולא does not mean ἐὰν μή, nisi. What follows, - viz., the ...


1

It is very odd that Moses would ask in Exodus 3:14, “If I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’—what should I say to them?” Considering that Moses probably knew which God he was speaking to based on the previous statements in the exchange in verse 6 “I am the God ...


1

The Scripture says: then Moses stood in the entrance of the camp, and said, “Whoever is on the LORD’s side—come to me!”... (Exodus 32:26 NKJV) The offer was made to everyone. The resulting action and message is straightforward. If you are for the LORD, come to Him. At some point all people have to decide: whose side are you on? No one should be ...


1

In Ex 14:10 we read: And when Pharaoh drew near, the children of Israel lifted their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched after them. So they were very afraid, and the children of Israel cried out to the LORD. (Exo 14:10 NKJ) So we must conclude that Pharaoh set off with his army. In the Exodus account there is no record of Pharaoh staying ...


1

As to where Moses was during the deliverance of the commandments, we read that God told Moses to go down and come back up in Exo 19:24 "And the LORD said to him, "Go down, and come up bringing Aaron with you." So it would stand to reason that Moses did indeed go back up for the commandment portion of the delivering of Law by God as there would be no reason ...



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