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9

Location: The location of Mount Horeb, which most understand to be the same as Mount Sinai (see Deut 4:10, 4:15, etc), is unclear. There are many traditions about the location of Mount Sinai, some of which are probably more hospitable than others. The location offered by Open Bible is but one of many. Sheep: None of the candidate locations appears to be ...


8

I've had some thoughts on this that don't quite answer the question, but are offered by way of response to the question. (As my comment suggests, my hunch is that the question may be unanswerable, but I'm not in a position to know that!) The response comes in three parts: first, some general observations about the Exodus plagues between science and biblical ...


8

There is a definite tension in this passage with Exodus 33:20. There are, however, a couple things in this passage that help alleviate some of it. First off, verse 11 notes: "But God did not raise his hand against these leaders of the Israelites." The author goes out of the way to note essentially that the leaders here did not die. That's the kind of ...


6

The confusion comes in part from imperfect translation. The commandment, in both Exodus 20 and Deuteronomy 5, reads as follows: לֹא-תַעֲשֶׂה לְךָ פֶסֶל, וְכָל-תְּמוּנָה, אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל, וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת--וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם, מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any ...


5

Before we talk about "in vain" we need to talk about "take". The passage is: לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת-שֵׁם-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, לַשָּׁוְא: The first verb, תִשָּׂא, is literally "lift up", the same word as in, e.g. Psalm 121, "I will lift up mine eyes". This isn't "take" as in "acquire", probably; it seems like a different word would have been used (lakach or ...


4

An alternate translation is “assembling” rather than “ministering”; the relevant root is צבא, see, e.g., Wiktionary. Try this translation on for size: He made the washstand of copper and its base of copper; from the mirrors of the assembled [women], who congregated at the entrance of the tent of meeting. The translation of “ministering” is somewhat ...


4

The three festivals (Pesach, Shavuot, Sukkot) were times when everybody was commanded to assemble in Jerusalem. They were celebrated with festive meals, including some of the meat that had been offered on the altar. (These offerings are listed throughout Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers.) The rabbis of the talmud understood that Shabbat should also include ...


4

Jacob Milgrom considers four theories about how the command came about: Maimonides suggested that it was a reaction to a specific Canaanite practice. Philo suggested the practice was inhuman for the same reason killing a young animal and its mother on the same day or killing an animal before it's weaned. Beginning with the work of Émile Durkheim, it has ...


4

The commingling of life and death was sacrilegious in the Hebrew Bible. For example, animals that are scavengers (lobster, shrimp, swine, dogs, vultures, lions and tigers, etc.) may thrive by habit on waste (garbage, refuse, scum, and/or other dead and decayed creatures), and thus they are unclean. Such animals could not be used for human consumption or ...


4

What Moses did wrong is exactly what the Hebrews did wrong when they sent the spies and they believed the pesimistic report given by the spies. In both cases, G-d told them that they could do something that in any other circumstance would be considered a miracle . . . and they didn't believe Him. Consider these facts. At Exodus 6:8 G-d promises to the ...


4

The Hebrew for this passage is: אַחֲרֵי-כֵן, יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה: כְּשַׁלְּחוֹ--כָּלָה, גָּרֵשׁ יְגָרֵשׁ אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה. Here's a phrase-by-phrase translation (mine, guided by the linked one): אַחֲרֵי-כֵן -- afterwards יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם מִזֶּה -- he will send you from this (anaphora unresolved, but from context "here") כְּשַׁלְּחוֹ -- when he ...


4

REVISED The metaphorical school of interpretation of Scripture is perhaps an organized reaction against the overly literal school of interpretation espoused by those generally well meaning folks who say quite vehemently and with an air of finality, "I believe the Bible is literally the Word of God!" In other ...


4

No, it wasn't a necessary thing to do (in addition to the actual circumcision) because the LORD had not commanded Zipporah to do it. The action and her words ("You [Moses] are a bridegroom of blood to me") certainly had a symbolic meaning, though that meaning, however, may or may not have been derived from "an ancient marital relationship formula recalling ...


3

THE WORD ITSELF The word translated "divide" can also mean "conquer" as in 2 Chr 32:1, or "split" as in Ecc 10:9m Num 16:31, "burst" (Job 32:19), breaking up fallow ground (Ps 141:7), or "dividing in two" (Zc 14:4, "separate" (Hab 4:9). The same word is used of the dividing of the sea in Ps 78:13 and Neh 9:11. Thus the word itself has a wide range of ...


3

The verb דִּבֵּר (dibber), which is conjugated in binyan Pi'el, is commonly followed by prepositions to indicate the person to or with whom the speaker is speaking. For example, אֶל (Gen. 8:15), לְ (Jdg. 14:7), עִם (Gen. 31:29), אֵת (Gen. 23:8), עַל (Jer. 6:10), and of course, בְּ (Hab. 2:1). In Num. 12:1 and 12:8, the context implies that Aharon and Miryam ...


3

The preposition ב can be translated in many different ways (in, with, through, against, while, when, for, by etc.) depending on how it functions in its context. In num 12:1 it makes good sense to translate it as "against" but the case could be made for translating it as simply "to" or "with." In v2, the case could be made for translating it as simply "to ...


3

Abraham did receive a son at the old age of Sarah and his. He as good as sacrificed him and received him back. He did not enter into God's rest as surely as the Israelites didn't who died in the wilderness and their children didn't who were lead into the land by Joshua. I can not favour the thought that those Israelites should have experienced God ...


3

Blotting out the memory of Amalek can't mean completely eliminating any memory of same, because the torah itself tells us about Amalek and there is no indication that humans have permission to alter the text of the torah. So blotting out Amalek must mean something else. The medieval commentator Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo ben Yitzchak) wrote on Deut 25:19: you ...


3

So, in Exodus 34:33, did Moshe speak to the Israelites with a veil upon his face or without a veil upon his face? I think the short answer is "yes".* The longer answer follows. * That is: yes Moshe spoke with a veil (eventually); and yes, Moshe spoke without a veil (in the instance of Ex 34:33, etc.). See the end of this answer for a small excursus ...


2

As hard as it may be to swallow, YHWH can assume any form He desires. In Bereishis 18 we read "The LORD (YHWH) appeared to Abraham near the great trees of Mamre while he was sitting at the entrance to his tent in the heat of the day. Abraham looked up and saw three men standing nearby. When he saw them, he hurried from the entrance of his tent to meet ...


2

The text does not say what the women did when they were ministering. Possibly they were greeting people as they entered the temple? Possibly helped direct visitors or provided a cup of water to thirsty visitors? Maybe they just kept things clean and organized? Regarding the mirrors, it seems that the women were not very vain for otherwise they would not be ...


2

The basis for those translations is that that's what the word means. Au contraire, "fifties" is a tenuous-at-best translation that is grammatically unnatural and contextually unnecessary. The only appearances of the word in this format, all of which clearly mean "armed" are: Joshua 1:14, 4:12 (contextually draw from Numbers 32) Judges 7:11 It's worth ...


2

The question as posed appears to be confusing the Mari documents (which are of several kinds) with the Amarna letters. As one can see from the Mari link provided, it is clear that this is a site in what is now Syria - so, then, not a source of letters sent from Egypt. The letters sent from Egypt (also referred to in Webb's commentary, linked by OP) are the ...


2

Pi HaHiroth is the name of a place, and therefore it's proper literal translation is "Pi Hahiroth," just as the translation of Migdol (later in the verse) would be Migdol. However, the ancient Biblical translation Onkelos translates it as "Pum Chirasa," which is translating the Hebrew word for mouth (Pi) into the Aramaic word for mouth. So it would then ...


2

According to the commentaries of Rashi and ibn Ezra, it's a place name. Thus, it translates into English as "Pi Hachiros", much as the English word "Chicago" translates into French as "Chicagot" (or however they'd write it). Others may differ, though I haven't yet found any Jewish source that does so explicitly.


2

The word תַּחַת is often translated "under". In Ex 19:17 it means "at the base of" (the people do not stand literally under a mountain), and it sometimes has other meanings. The meaning here is almost certainly positional in some way due to the mem prefix and adjoined lamed (see section 7b here). The simplest explanation is that מִתַּחַת refers to all ...


1

In fact here you have to merge two things. From the context you can understand that the writer refers to marine creatures and things. Translating Exodus 20:4 in modern terms: nothing coming from lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere can become an idol. Here is the point: what was hydrosphere for the writer? In fact wasn't a "sphere" at all. In the flat ...


1

Apparently the "proper translation of Pi Hahiroth" depends on who you ask or what you read. Examples: BDB = "place where sedge grows". Strong's = "mouth of the gorges". Wesley's Notes = "the straits of Hiroth". There might be others.


1

The Hebrew word for "earth" here is the same used for "earth" in Genesis 1:1-2 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.2 The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. In Genesis 1:1-2 we find two things pertinent to your question. I. ...


1

The covenant in the Old Testament is best understood as a Suzerain Covenant, a common type of covenant (read: contract) from the ancient near east. Such covenants, when written out, followed a typical format of about five points: Preamble History Stipulations Sanctions Closing The book of Deuteronomy follows these five points quite closely. The Preamble ...



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