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14

The (relatively) small amount of bronze needed to make that serpent/snake (or נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת nĕḥaš nĕḥōšet) in the story of Num 21:4-9,1 even if it was as large as the monument now on Mount Nebo in Jordan,... ...would still have been quite small compared to the amount of bronze (let alone silver and gold) needed to make the utensils required for the ...


8

I've had some thoughts on this that don't quite answer the question, but are offered by way of response to the question. (As my comment suggests, my hunch is that the question may be unanswerable, but I'm not in a position to know that!) The response comes in three parts: first, some general observations about the Exodus plagues between science and biblical ...


7

See also the follow-up Q&A to this one on the Greek antecedents of the absolute use of ἐγὼ εἰμί in the New Testament which advances and nuances the discussion below. The Question This is an excellent question, and one that in different forms has been pondered by interpreters of John's gospel for centuries. My own way of capturing what is at stake here ...


6

This is a question that has caused problems with commentators and interpreters for centuries. Speaking most strictly, Cush and Midia are not the same place. Midia was on the Arabian peninsula (in the region of Jordan and Saudi Arabia today) while Cush proper was in the Sudan and Ethiopia region. In fact, the Septuagint uniformly translates Cush with ...


6

It should not be assumed that since the modern Hebrew word for "crocodile" is tannin that the word meant the same thing in the time of Biblical Hebrew. Sometimes lingual shifts are minor, but other times they are significant. For example, in Biblical Hebrew, 'olam means "for length of days" (often understood as the closest term to eternity preserved in ...


5

An alternate translation is “assembling” rather than “ministering”; the relevant root is צבא, see, e.g., Wiktionary. Try this translation on for size: He made the washstand of copper and its base of copper; from the mirrors of the assembled [women], who congregated at the entrance of the tent of meeting. The translation of “ministering” is somewhat ...


5

No, it wasn't a necessary thing to do (in addition to the actual circumcision) because the LORD had not commanded Zipporah to do it. The action and her words ("You [Moses] are a bridegroom of blood to me") certainly had a symbolic meaning, though that meaning, however, may or may not have been derived from "an ancient marital relationship formula recalling ...


4

According to Ezekiel the prophet, the cities of the plain, which included Sodom and Gomorrah, were destroyed because of the neglect of the poor and needy (Ez 16:48-50). In other words, the events in the Book of Genesis regarding Sodom and Gomorrah occurred BEFORE the revelation of the ten commandments and other laws given through Moses. Thus there was some ...


4

The pre-Pauline references to the brother magicians are rare. Other answers draw attention to the mention of the names by Pliny in his Natural History (XXX.1.11). This was published at the end of the 70s, however, and so is only evidence that the names were current by Paul's time. There was a theory that the second century BCE Jewish historian Artapanus, ...


4

The "traditional" handling of Exodus 20:3-4 (in the numbering of the standard English translations) -- that the current v. 4 is its own clause/sentence, distinct from v. 3 -- ought to be followed for reasons of both syntax (the ways in which words are ordered to form sentences) and semantics (the meanings of the words). Syntax In this list of commandments, ...


4

Under Jewish law he did not commit murder. The Egyptian was in Talmudic parlance a rodef -- a pursuer; i.e. one who was trying to kill another person or persons. In such instances, the pursued have the right to self-defense. Rava coined the , and third-parties have the right to kill the pursuer. Rava coined the famous Talmudic dictum (Babyl. Talmud, ...


4

Of course, אֱלֹהִים ʾĕlōhîm has a much broader semantic range than YHWH, as implied by the way the question is framed. They are by no means synonymous. The entry in Brown-Driver-Briggs lists a number of references where ʾĕlōhîm is used of one who stands in God's place (as HALOT also has it): Some references are regularly cited together here, especially ...


3

Exodus 22:18 (note it is 22:17 in the Hebrew text) is one of those texts which may be especially susceptible to anachronistic treatments based on putative translations rather than relevant historical and linguistic evidence. First, then, the text: Masoretic text: :מְכַשֵּׁפָה לֹא תְחַיֶּה mĕkaššēpâ lōʾ tĕḥayyeh You shall not allow a mĕkaššēpâ to ...


3

So, in Exodus 34:33, did Moshe speak to the Israelites with a veil upon his face or without a veil upon his face? I think the short answer is "yes".* The longer answer follows. * That is: yes Moshe spoke with a veil (eventually); and yes, Moshe spoke without a veil (in the instance of Ex 34:33, etc.). See the end of this answer for a small excursus ...


3

THE WORD ITSELF The word translated "divide" can also mean "conquer" as in 2 Chr 32:1, or "split" as in Ecc 10:9m Num 16:31, "burst" (Job 32:19), breaking up fallow ground (Ps 141:7), or "dividing in two" (Zc 14:4, "separate" (Hab 4:9). The same word is used of the dividing of the sea in Ps 78:13 and Neh 9:11. Thus the word itself has a wide range of ...


3

The verb דִּבֵּר (dibber), which is conjugated in binyan Pi'el, is commonly followed by prepositions to indicate the person to or with whom the speaker is speaking. For example, אֶל (Gen. 8:15), לְ (Jdg. 14:7), עִם (Gen. 31:29), אֵת (Gen. 23:8), עַל (Jer. 6:10), and of course, בְּ (Hab. 2:1). In Num. 12:1 and 12:8, the context implies that Aharon and Miryam ...


3

The preposition ב can be translated in many different ways (in, with, through, against, while, when, for, by etc.) depending on how it functions in its context. In num 12:1 it makes good sense to translate it as "against" but the case could be made for translating it as simply "to" or "with." In v2, the case could be made for translating it as simply "to ...


3

After doing some research, it seems that the adjective טוֹב (tov) is sometimes used in reference to people in a manner referring other than to a personality trait (i.e., "kind"). For example, in Gen. 6:2, it is written, And the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that that they were [טֹבֹת], and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose. ...


2

The question as posed appears to be confusing the Mari documents (which are of several kinds) with the Amarna letters. As one can see from the Mari link provided, it is clear that this is a site in what is now Syria - so, then, not a source of letters sent from Egypt. The letters sent from Egypt (also referred to in Webb's commentary, linked by OP) are the ...


2

Pi HaHiroth is the name of a place, and therefore it's proper literal translation is "Pi Hahiroth," just as the translation of Migdol (later in the verse) would be Migdol. However, the ancient Biblical translation Onkelos translates it as "Pum Chirasa," which is translating the Hebrew word for mouth (Pi) into the Aramaic word for mouth. So it would then ...


2

According to the commentaries of Rashi and ibn Ezra, it's a place name. Thus, it translates into English as "Pi Hachiros", much as the English word "Chicago" translates into French as "Chicagot" (or however they'd write it). Others may differ, though I haven't yet found any Jewish source that does so explicitly.


2

Not entirely sure that there is just one, or even two answers to this conundrum. I have pondered this on many occasions and done some research as well. Some of the answers I have come across are: Anger. Moses got angry and his anger lead him to not follow his instructions properly so I suppose you could say anger resulting in disobedience...? Pride. He ...


2

Moses wasn't just anyone. Remember he was raised in Pharaoh's court (i.e. this Pharaoh's father's court). He was basically the adopted nephew of this Pharaoh since he was adopted by his father's daughter. (Exodus 2:5)


2

The Idea in Brief Both the oral and written Jewish tradition (as codified in pre-Talmudic Midrashim and the Masoretic Text, respectively) indicate that the blindness, deafness, and muteness in this verse were that of the Egyptians, who would be unresponsive to the message of Moses to release the Jewish people from captivity. Discussion The first place to ...


1

The question of the semantics of the verb פָּסַח‎ = pāsaḥ is a difficult one, in part because it so quickly gets lost and subsumed in discussion of the noun pesaḥ (the name of the feast/festival), and in part because the verb has its own inherent difficulties. There has long been a question as to whether there should be one or two distinct "roots" behind ...


1

From Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers: Exodus 22:18 [cf. Deuteronomy 18:10-11] - Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.—The word translated [by some Bible versions] “witch” . . . is the feminine singular [i.e., sorceress of that rendered by “sorcerers” in Exodus 7:11, and means “a mutterer of charms.” The use of the feminine form can only be ...


1

What we must remember is that this is the 2nd time Moses is addressing the "Rock". God's commandment to Moses was explicit,(Ex. 17:5-6) And the Lord said unto Moses, Go on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go. 6 Behold, I will stand before thee ...


1

Numbers 20:12 gives two reasons: 1) Moses did not believe God and 2) failed to sanctify God. Moses knew striking the rock before had brought forth water and did not believe speaking alone would bring the same results. His attitude and statement "must we" indicate the failure to sanctify God. A parallel would be being baptized into Christ (Galatians 3:27) ...


1

We see the same problem when we consider the "clean" animals, which Noah included in his ark (Gen 7:8) intended for burnt sacrifices to the Lord (Gen 8:20). That is, the number of "clean" animals were tripled in the ark for the purposes of burnt sacrifice (Gen 7:2). How did Noah come to discriminate "clean" and "unclean" animals in the absence of the ...



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