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7

There's a subtle shift in how the narrative refers to Pharaoh and the army part way through the account. We can see the first method in the first question: Q: Does the Pharaoh actually leave with the army to chase the Israelites? A: Yes Exodus 14:7 So he made ready his chariot and took his army with him, (ESV) The Pharaoh is spoken of directly. Prior ...


7

...I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments; and I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you a God; and ye shall know that I am the Lord your God, who brought you out from under ...


7

The Hebrew text uses three different words in this context: The word kashah, קשה appears only once, Exodus 7:3. Literally: I will make Pharaoh's heart hard/difficult/severe... The word chazak, חזק appears often in this context. For example Exodus 7:13. Literally: I will strengthen Pharaoh's heart... The words kaved/kavad, כבד (these two entries in ...


6

That God removed or lessened Pharaoh’s free will is a common explanation; usually justified by saying that the plagues were punishment for the slavery and could not be allowed to be escaped. I never liked that explanation, but it’s out there. Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch in his Commentary explains that God did not “harden Pharaoh’s heart” so much as “allow ...


6

Exodus 7:3 And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt קָשָׁה, Strongs 7185 means harden, and has the preformative attachment, אֶ, denoting the imperfect conjugation, used for incomplete action. This can be present or future depending on context, which in this case is obviously future, so we get "I ...


5

In Exo. 12:12-13, it is written, 12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and I will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast, and I will execute judgment against all the gods of Egypt. I am Yahveh. 13 And the blood shall be your sign upon the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, then I will ...


4

Abstract None. Or at least nothing substantial. The claim that some story about Jesus is really a retelling of some other story about some mythical figure assumes that 1st century Christians would have: Known the former myth and Hoped other people wouldn't notice the similarities. Because the early Christians seemed to have believed these stories ...


3

The question as posed appears to be confusing the Mari documents (which are of several kinds) with the Amarna letters. As one can see from the Mari link provided, it is clear that this is a site in what is now Syria - so, then, not a source of letters sent from Egypt. The letters sent from Egypt (also referred to in Webb's commentary, linked by OP) are the ...


3

Exodus 12:12b (and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord) seems incongruous, both as the only reference anywhere in this narrative to the gods of Egypt and as breaking the flow of narrative. Reading Exodus 12:12a then 12:13, we can see a unity of text and a logical sequence in the narrative: Exodus 12:12a,13 (KJV): For I ...


2

There is a rule in Hollywood that any events that do not add to the story should be omitted. For example there is no point in showing the detectives traveling to the suspect's house if nothing happens in the car, just show them arrive at the door. Or better yet, just jump to them questioning the suspect in their home. Screen time is precious and so is space ...


2

The most common times chosen for the Exodus are sometime between 2670 BCE and 1759 BCE, during the Reign of Ahmose I who ruled 1539–1514 BCE, during the reign of Amenhotep II who ruled 1427–1401 BC, or 1427–1397 BC. Most scholars believe that it was one of the Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty The thinking behind these two dates are thus: For the first time ...


1

In Ex 14:10 we read: And when Pharaoh drew near, the children of Israel lifted their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched after them. So they were very afraid, and the children of Israel cried out to the LORD. (Exo 14:10 NKJ) So we must conclude that Pharaoh set off with his army. In the Exodus account there is no record of Pharaoh staying ...


1

What is meant by being brought "back in ships to Egypt"? Did this happen historically? I find no reason from the text in question to assume that the Lord's threat to "send you (national Israel) back to Egypt in ships" is anything but literal. I take it to mean specifically the nation as a whole because the entire address regarding the Blessings and the ...



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