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In the article Hebrew Henotheism: Challenging the notion of Biblical Monotheism, the case is made that the Shema was to be understood relationally with Israel. The 1985 edition of the Jewish Publication Society translation of the TaNaKH portrays this when they translate the verse as “Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD alone.” This reading ...


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Deuteronomy 32 and 33 sounds so schizophrenic because, as Jeff S. Anderson says (The Blessing and the Curse: Trajectories in the Theology of the Old Testament, page 65), the blessing in Deuteronomy 33 is considered by critical scholars to be a likely insertion into the Deuteronomic material. Deuteronomy 32:48-52 and 34:1-4 are so closely related that, when ...


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Most scholars who believe that Ancient Israel was henotheistic also accept some for of the Documentary Hypothesis and therefore assume that Deuteronomy, including the Shema, was written at a later date, after the Israelites had switched from henotheism to monotheism. (The DH does not assume that the theology is consistent across different parts of the Hebrew ...



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