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Another answer gave evidence in support of the idea that this passage refers to demonic powers and echoes (or rather, anticipates) gnostic ideas. Clearly this is one widely held scholarly viewpoint. I would like to point out, however, that this is not the only available, defensible interpretation. I have bolded here the references given by the OP to other NT ...


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Earl Doherty says, in The Jesus Puzzle, there has not been a universal scholarly consensus on what Paul has in mind when referring to 'rulers' (archons) in 1 Corinthians 2:8, but that over the last century a majority of commentators, some reluctantly, have decided that he is referring to the demon spirits. He cites Paul Ellingworth, S. G. F. Brandon, C. K. ...


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Plural form of ἄρχων refers to angelic beings in both Daniel LXX-OG & Theodotion. Concerning 1Cor 2:6,8 rulers τῶν ἀρχόντων Gordon Fee[1] “the plural form does not refer to demonic forces of any kind in any Jewish or Christian writings prior to the second century.” G. Fee draws a unnecessary semantic boundary between the singular and plural form ...



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