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14

Arguments for a late (2nd century BC) dating: Anti-Prophetic Argument One of the first people to dispute the traditional dating of Daniel was Porphyry, a pagan philosopher whose arguments have been preseved by Jerome. He argues that some of the prophecies in Daniel are so congruent to the time of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the book must have been written ...


12

The original word here is closest to yawan, aka Javan son of Japheth—who is credited in the Bible with being the start of the tree of descendants that populated the Greek region. So the translation isn't unreasonable, but it may be talking more about the people rather than a traditional "kingdom". For more information, see this page.


10

More on the linguistics for an early date. It is more proper to say that Hebrew had changed drastically by the 2nd century BC. Lingual shifts had happened but it was still a living language. The most obvious being the word order changed from verb-subject-object to subject-verb-object. It is called Mishnaic Hebrew and the rabbinic writings are full of it. ...


10

The two languages are related (both are Northwest Semtic languages) and eventually shared a script. Hebrew, prior to the exile used its own script called Paleo-Hebrew. It was still used afterwards in isolated places and instances, but what we now call Aramaic Square replaced it for the most part. Though they share many common words and large pieces of ...


9

The relevant bit of Daniel 10:3 reads as follows: ... וְהִנֵּה מִיכָאֵל אַחַד הַשָּׂרִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים בָּא לְעָזְרֵנִי ... ... but, behold, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me ... OP has two intertwining interests: (1) the primary question is about the meaning here of "one" in Hebrew; but secondarily (2) how does this relate to the ...


8

Well, in this particular verse, each occurrence of אֲדֹנָי is in an imperative statement, viz. אֲדֹנָי שְׁמָעָה. You could certainly translate it as "Lord, hear!" There's also nothing wrong with translating it as "O' Lord, hear!" In both, אֲדֹנָי is functionining as a vocative, and vocatives are often translated with a preceding "O'." That is why the ...


8

In Hebrew אחד is a cardinal number. The names of the days of the week are formed from cardinal numbers, so what we call “Sunday” is “day one” in Hebrew, and thus also in the Greek and Latin Bibles, but the English translators render this as “the first day”, only because this sounds more natural in English. But אחד does not actually ever mean “first”. The ...


7

Could it have been Jesus? I doubt it could be Jesus, because the implication of verses 12-13 is that the speaker was restrained by the "prince of the Persian kingdom"; I doubt the prince could have restrained Jesus. So is it an angel or a human? Verses 5-6 show that the person is an angel: I looked up and there before me was a man dressed in linen, ...


6

It's not implying that we'll become actual stars, but that we will become like stars. That "those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above". This brings to mind the radiance of God that we saw shining around Moses after he came down from Mount Sinai: Exodus 34:29 (NIV) When Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two tablets of ...


6

The Hebrew Bible uses the verb חָתַם in two ways. The first is the common use of seal as royal cachet. The idea here is that the king's edict is irreversible. Thus Jezebel (1 Ki 21:8) and Mordecai (Esther 8:8) seal the royal decrees as mandates "ex officio" from the king. The seal was therefore the explicit authority of the king. The second and related use ...


5

Antiochus Epiphanes. Basis An answer for the 'little horn' rests on which presuppositions the reader is willing to make about the book of Daniel. Having at least one presupposition is inevitable, no matter who you are, and that affects the way one reads the entire book. My presupposition is this: Daniel is about kingdoms, and the author names all of the ...


5

The Rabbinic interpretation is: Messianic "Ancient of Days" is a name of God "son of man" is a mistranslation The term "ben adam" or "bar enosh" is used in OT Hebrew to mean a mortal, fallible human being. Used commonly by God when addressing mortals to remind them of their place in the general scheme of things. (And used commonly in modern Hebrew to ...


5

The Hebrew word for week is literally a time period of seven (Strong's #7620). In Deuteronomy 16:9 it is certainly used to refer to a time period of seven days. In Genesis 29:18-30 it is clearly used to refer to a time period of seven years! Thus, Upon seeing this word one must ask, "a time period of seven whats?" We are dependent upon textual and ...


5

Unfortunately... This is an interesting take on the idiom, and while the KJV does translate the Hebrew of Psalm 90.10 as 'threescore years and ten', the Hebrew simply says 'seventy years' (שבעים שנה). To understand the meaning of 'time, and times, and half a time', we really should stay within the individual context that we find the phrase, being Daniel ...


5

Daniel 7:27 reads: ומלכותה ושלטנא ורבותא די מלכות תחות כל־שמיא יהיבת לעם קדישי עליונין מלכותה מלכות עלם וכל שלטניא לה יפלחון וישתמעון׃ First of all, this is not Hebrew but Aramaic. The third word from the end (in bold) is l-eh, with the suffix for the third person singular masculine. It could mean “to him” (that is: to the most high one), but since the ...


4

A translation without bias? That isn't possible. Every person alive has presuppositions that they bring to the text. I know I do. Knowing and admitting that I have a bias actually helps me translating the Old Testament because I can then watch out for it when I am working through a text. The best that can be done is to minimize bias by having a nicely ...


4

Daniel 2:2 is written in Hebrew. In transliteration, the list of professionals that the king calls is: hartumim ashaphim mechashphim casdim The verse is an echo of Genesis 41:8. "Hartumim" appear in the story of the dreams of Pharaoh in Genesis 41:8, in Exodus 7:11 and elsewhere, as dream interpreters and fortune tellers. The word might come from ...


4

According to F.F. Bruce's Israel and the Nations (p 108): "the God of Heaven" is a title by which Yahweh is commonly designated under the Persian regime The phrase is not just used in Daniel, but also used in Ezra 7:12 where Ezra is designated "scribe of the law of the God of heaven" in Artaxerxe's letter to Ezra. It is used throughout the book of ...


4

They are both west Semitic and have a very obvious shared root language. They also use the same script. However, there are a handful of differences in the way they developed. For instance, the long 'a' was retained in Aramaic but changed to a long 'o' in Hebrew in some words. Also, where we see a tav in Aramaic, there is often a shin in Hebrew. This is ...


4

I go back and forth on my interpretation of Gen 6:1-4 as to if it is fallen angels or people. Fallen angels is certainly a view with history. That is the interpretation that the authors of 1 Enoch had (see especially Book of the Watchers). However, Walter Kaiser gives a good defense of the sons of God being human beings in The Old Testament Documents: Are ...


4

The book of Daniel is an early example of the apocalyptic genre, which includes the book of Revelation in the New Testament, and several apocryphal books. Books in this genre, though written over the span of several centuries, carried many similar features, including: The prophet receiving his messages through visions and symbols An angel guiding the ...


4

It's actually the opposite. Angels might be referred to as "sons of God" (see Job) but never as "a son of man." It should also be noted that his wording is awkward. 1 Enoch is a pre-Christian work, as you note in your question. To refer to an angel as a "son of man" goes against everything in Jewish thinking. They simply aren't. edit: Russell also seems to ...


4

The simple answer is yes to your question, they are the same. Nebuchadnezzar attacked Jerusalem 3 times and he took captives when he did so. God also promised to keep the captives safe and prosper them. This is Nebuchadnezzar the second who reigned from 605 BC – 562 BC, while Nebuchadnezzar the first reigned from 1126–1103 BC. So there isn't a son with the ...


3

The Dream In Daniel 2:31-36 Daniel recounts Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the statue to him. After the statue is described, Daniel says the following: You continued looking until a stone was cut out without hands, and it struck the statue on its feet of iron and clay and crushed them. Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold were crushed ...


3

The citation in Ezekiel 4:6 is exactly identical with a similar case of judgment in Numbers 14:34, where the Israelites were confined to the wilderness for 40 years so that each year corresponded with each day that the spies were in the land. In both Ezekiel 4:6 and Numbers 14:34, the expansion of "days into years" stemmed from the iniquity of the Israelites ...


3

Dan. 2:40 And the fourth kingdom shall be as strong as iron, inasmuch as iron breaks in pieces and shatters everything; and like iron that crushes, that kingdom will break in pieces and crush all the others. Dan. 2:41 Whereas you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter’s clay and partly of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; yet the strength of the iron ...


3

They are certainly referring to the same individual. The name is the same Briefly addressing this point. The name for 'Nebuchadnezzar' is spelled a variety of ways in Hebrew, sometimes ending with 'rezzar', but even within the book of Jeremiah we find alternate spellings: -rezzar נבוכדראצור: Jeremiah (1) נבוכדראצר: Jeremiah (28), and Ezekiel (4) ...


3

The sizes didn't represent anything special themselves, but if you know them, then you know that this "image of gold" was not a mere statue - from the given proportions (10:1 ratio) you could conclude that it was an obelisk. Obelisks in ancient world could have special meanings and purposes. Some of them were considered "sacred pillars". Pliny the Elder in ...


2

Further argument for a late date Not only does Daniel seem able to prophesy events close to the time of 167 BCE accurately, although not the relevant events that occurred shortly after this time, but its narrative around the chronology of the Exile seems flawed. Chapter 8 is in the time of Babylonian rule, then Daniel 9:1 is the first year of Darius, son of ...


2

This is more an expanded comment on Eli's answer than an answer in itself. Eli wrote: The intention of the list is to cover all of the possible wisdom professions and to show that none of them can compete with the word of God as given to Daniel. This is an astute observation when taking into account the style of the whole book. Long lists occur in many ...



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