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13

Suzerain covenants Modern contracts typically follow a certain format: the parties of the contract are identified, the terms and conditions are defined, certain penalties are defined, and the parties (and witnesses, if necessary) sign their agreement. There is a similarly formatted ancient Near Eastern contract, called a suzerain covenant, though these ...


8

I don't know of any scholar who denies that Hammurabi wrote a code of laws before Moses received the Ten Commandments and the accompanying law. So if the question is: Did Moses invent the idea of having a written code of laws, the answer is clearly "no". But if the question is: Were the specific set of laws in the Ten Commandments et al not really written ...


7

The World Health Organization reports that the average weaning age is 4.2 years worldwide at present, however the weaning age has declined in modern times and the weaning age would have been higher in the past. This is supported by the book of II Maccabees, 7:27 wherein a mother casually mentions giving milk to her son for three years which would be ...


6

The setting here is long before the invention of the printing press. The scriptures were hand copied, thus ordinary people would not have been able to own a copy of the scriptures. However, in ancient Judea during the Second Temple Period, the Jewish scriptures(Christian Old Testament) would have been publicly available in the synagogues to read. In fact, ...


6

Psalm 23:5 You prepare a table before me... [OP]: Just what does this table represent? First, except in the most qualified sense, this is not what is in mind in Psalm 23:5 - The word "table" The Hebrew term for "table" is שֻׁלְחָן šulḥān (71× in the Hebrew Bible), still the common word in use in Israeli Hebrew. But in the world of ...


6

It is safe to say that commentators through the centuries have found this pair the most puzzling of the catalogue of times in Ecclesiastes 3:2-8. And, as George Barton wrote in his ICC commentary of 1908, [t]he interpretation of the first clause is difficult. Observations There are obvious regularities and patterns in the pairs of opposites that are ...


4

Two reasons barrenness was undesirable In antiquity there were typically two reasons that barrenness was undesirable. The first, which isn't really an issue in this text had to do with the security of the future. Children were the ancient equivalent of a retirement plan since there were no pensions, social security, etc. Therefore, the only ones to care for ...


4

I have two answers, a simple meaning and an allegorical meaning. Simple meaning: After a home is built the excess stones are removed from the home (because they are in the way and no longer useful). Before a home is built we gather the stones to build the house. So this is a parallel of verse 3. See Metzudat David (an 18th C Jewish commentary that focuses ...


3

Aaron, Eleazar and Ithamar were specifically told not to rend their clothing in mourning for Nadab and Abihu when the Lord killed them for bringing profane fire to the Tabernacle: "Then Moses said to Aaron and to his sons Eleazar and Ithamar, “Do not uncover your heads nor tear your clothes, so that you will not die and that He will not become wrathful ...


3

I will answer your “Question 1”, as this is not addressed in the earlier question. In Classical Greek πιστεύω means “trust, put faith in, rely on” and takes an object in the dative or accusative; it is never (as far as I can see) construed with the prepositions ἐν or εἰς. This construction is, however, commonplace in LXX and NT, e.g. Ps. 77:22, where ὅτι ...


3

Jesus tells a parable that is consistent with the practice: And a certain poor man, Lazarus by name, had been put at his gate— having been covered-with-sores, and desiring to be filled-to-satisfaction by the things falling (πιπτόντων) from the table of the rich man. Even indeed the dogs coming were licking his sores. (Luke 16:19-21 DLNT) The word fell ...


3

Further Analysis Davïd's answer gives a good statement about the verse, providing a very useful analysis. However, there are a couple of points of analysis for Eccl 3:1-8 that I believe are relevant, yet unexplored (likely both by Davïd and the commentaries he references). Four More Relevant Observations "More," because again, Davïd's observations are ...


2

If you further read the text in 1 Samuel 2:5, AFTER Hannah leaves Samuel with Eli and when she is praising the Lord she says, "She who was barren has borne seven children, but she who has many sons pines away." Hannah is referring to herself in the first part of that sentence, so by the time she committed Samuel to the Lord as a servant of the priest (which ...


2

There has been much argument as to whether the relevant word is correctly translated as 'lion' or 'pierced', because the Hebrew words (transliterated as kaari and kaaru) are almost indistinguishable. Both Christian and Jewish scholars have concluded that translating the passage with 'lion' (kaari) is meaningless and kaari is not supported by the earliest ...


2

One Subordinate Clause or Two? The offered phrase suggests the last five Greek words of Lk.10:18 form one subordinate clause, that Jesus said Satan is like ‘lightning falling from heaven’ (i.e. Satan falls from heaven like lighting falls from heaven). Some English translations allow or may suggest this reading (e.g. NASB, NIV). But what would that ...


2

The language of Luke 10:18 "ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πεσόντα" echoes the Language of Isa 14:12 in the LXX "ἐξέπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ". In the excellent book "Commentary on the New Testament use of the Old Testement" (Beale & Carson) it is pointed out that Jewish tradition also applies Is 14:12 to the fall of Satan as Jesus Christ does, they cite: 2 Enoch 29:3 ...


2

Since the previous answer quoted Josephus, I would like to draw on this reference also: (Book XII, Chapt. 5:1 (Loeb 12:241) Antiquities of the Jews) And the sons of Tobias took the part of Menelaus, but the greater part of the people assisted Jason; and by that means Menelaus and the sons of Tobias were distressed, and retired to Antiochus, and ...


2

While not stated directly, the Sabbath is evidence that holy ground first occurred during creation. The Sabbath is holy to God's people and it is holy to the LORD: And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak also to the children of Israel, saying: ‘Surely My Sabbaths you shall keep, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that ...


1

In Luke 1:59-60 we also have the account of the birth of John the Baptist: And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias, after the name of his father. And his mother answered and said, Not so; but he shall be called John. So at the time Luke was writing, naming a boy at his circumcision ...


1

Sarah Iles Johnston (Religions of the Ancient World, page 330) distinguishes the notion of 'offerings' from 'sacrifices'. She says that in the biblical world, sacrifice more typically connotes a specific offering in which blood is poured out. Connected with this is the idea that blood is endowed with a special power. This idea is common to most of the ...


1

In Hebrew the text reads: וְהִנֵּ֨ה תַנּ֤וּר עָשָׁן֙ וְלַפִּ֣יד אֵ֔שׁ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָבַ֔ר בֵּ֖ין הַגְּזָרִ֥ים הָאֵֽלֶּה Lapid Esh (לַפִּ֣יד אֵ֔שׁ) literally means "a torch of fire." This would seem to be redundant, what other kind of torch is there? I submit that the verse should be read as if there was a kof before the lamed of לַפִּ֣יד (i.e. ...


1

Question Restatement: According to Jewish Tradition, or Mosaic Law, what was happening at the 9th hour? Question Clarification: This is either in relationship to a general day of the week, (like Acts 3:1), or the Preparation Day of the Sabbath, or Sabbath Gadol -- and both answers are very different. Answer, Regarding Jewish Daily Prayers: (A.) ...


1

I find it difficult to understand why people would not read the Hebrew of the Bible at its face value: כי סבבוני כלבים for they turn-around me like dogs for they circumvent me like dogs עדת מרעים הקףוני gathering of companions they encircle me gathering of evil-doers they close-in on me כארי ידי ורגלי as lions of my hands and my feet as lights of my ...


1

Looking at the verses in context, I would say that age is not implied. First, the context is different in each case so I will take them by instance. Matthew 10:23-25 22 and you will be hated by all for my name’s sake... 24 “A disciple is not above his teacher, nor a servant above his master. 25 It is enough for the disciple to be like his ...


1

The rod and the staff are both objects used by Shepards to tend their sheep. This is my take since it is the rod I have researched for "spare the ROD and spoil the child." It is depicted as a long staff with a claw type hook on the end. Perhaps they are one tool having different ends. The rod being used to reach out and gently tap the sheep getting away ...



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