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Firmament The primary reason the word "firmament" has been updated in modern translation (using the term "changed" is incorrect - new translations start with the original language, not the KJV text) is because language changes. While the word was an ordinary one in 1611 meaning something like The arch or vault of heaven overhead, in which the clouds ...


9

The Hebrew text of Gen. 1:1-2 states, א בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ ב וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם First, notice that v. 2 commences with a disjunctive vav, i.e. וְהָאָרֶץ. One website explains the disjunctive relationship as follows: The ...


7

Not poetry, but Prologue Gordon J. Wenham notes in The Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 1: Genesis 1-15 on page 46 ...[Genesis 1:1–2:3] stands apart from the narratives that follow in style and content and makes it an overture to the whole work. On page 50 he continues: Extrabiblical creation stories from the ancient Near East are usually poetic, ...


6

They fly across the expanse of the heavens. The word פָּנִים pānîm (lit. "faces") is used in "frozen union" with certain prepositions to form constructions that function syntactically as prepositions, linking a verbal idea to a noun.1 That is, they allow a noun to specify something about the nature of the verb. This is no different from other prepositional ...


6

There are several creation accounts in antiquity from two main areas in the fertile crescent; Babylon/Sumer and Egypt. I will attempt to summarize and compare/contrast points of each creation myth with Genesis, so I will apologize at the outset to readers for the long answer. I'm sure the OP did not realize what a tall order this was, and as curiousdannii ...


6

I think the key to translating Genesis 1:2 is not וְר֣וּחַ (we·ruach, "spirit"), but rather מְרַחֶ֖פֶת (me·rachepheth, "moved"). Better understanding the verb will help us better understand the subject. rachaph (the root) is a rare verb. It occurs just three times in the Old Testament: here, Deuteronomy 32:11: Like an eagle that stirs up its nest, ...


5

Hebrew ṣelāʽ (thus the correct transliteration) is a clear cognate of Akkadian ṣēlu and Arabic ḍilʽ and ḍilaʽ, all of which primarily mean “rib”, but are also metaphorically used to mean “side”. They are very widely attested in Akkadian and Arabic and leave no doubt as to their meaning. It is a basic Semitic noun for a body part. From a linguistic point of ...


4

I recently answered a similar question, so I will repost my answer here with a few edits: The problem with your interpretation of the word "void" is that it proceeds from a false premise of "Creatio Ex Nilho" (Creation from Nothing) which was a concept that arrived on the scene with Platonic philosophy. This is not to say that this philosophy is wrong ...


4

The Hebrew word for man is אָדָם (adam) or אּישׁ (ish). The "out of man" (מֵאִ֖ישׁ meish, also transliterated me’iysh) in this passage derives from the latter form. Like in Gen 2:23, ish often carries a definite connection with males (as opposed to "mankind"), but has a variety of uses. You can explore the usage of all forms of ish here and meish here. ...


3

The Cosmic Temple Among others, both John Walton (Genesis 1 as Ancient Cosmology) and G.K. Beale (The Temple and the Church's Mission) argue that the cosmos and Eden are constructed in Genesis 1-2 in terminology fitting of a temple. Beale in an article titled, "Eden, The Temple, And The Church's Mission In The New Creation", elaborates at least nine points ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Creation myth of Ptah The creation myth of Ptah comes from Memphis which was created as the capitol city for Egypt during the Old Kingdom period by Pharaoh Menes. During the 26th dynasty (672BCE–525BCE; the late period) of Egypt, the Shabaka stone was ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Ogdoad of Hermopolis The creation myth of the Ogdoad is the oldest creation myth and It is very difficult to study because it is not contained in single volumes like all of the Babylonian myths. Instead, this myth is pieced together from multiple sources of ...


3

The Garden of Eden is said to be eastward, in Eden Genesis (2:8); Eastward appears to be either the direction toward the garden, from where the writer of the text was, at the time he wrote it, or the direction God moved from, when he placed Adam into the garden, after creating him. We might assume, God was in Eden, when He created Adam, and could assume He ...


3

A theological answer would indicate that Rabbinic Jewish and early Christian thinkers did not attribute bodily form or sex to God, though most attributed male gender owing to the preponderance of typically masculine imagery and grammatical forms for God they saw in the Bible. Growing gender awareness has challenged traditional assumptions, and most Jewish ...


3

The Hebrews reads הָֽאָדָ֖ם note the article הָֽ ('the') before אָדָם ('man', 'mankind', 'Adam'). Going back to Gen 1:27 we read: So God created man ( אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ )in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. ( NKJ) Notice that it is exactly the same term "the man" in both cases (though this is obscured ...


2

Revelation 22:5 Mentions that God is the source of light in heaven: There will be no more night. They will not need the light of a lamp or the light of the sun, for the Lord God will give them light. This indicates that it is possible for God himself to be a source of light. When God said "Let there be light" in Genesis 1:3, he doesn't specify a ...


1

As the question recognises, Hebrew poetry is very different from Western poetry and thus difficult to recognise initially. We have to look for parallel ideas, rather than rhyme and rhythm. Francis S. Collins (The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, page 140) says, "There is no question that this is a powerful and poetic narrative ...


1

The reason for translating this word as "rib" in this passage most likely has to do with Genesis 2:23 in which Adam states "This one at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh" (NET). While you are correct that this word is often translated as chamber, according to the NAS Exhaustive Concordance, the NASB most often translates צֵלָע (tsela) as side ...


1

I think you may be picturing the planet earth as we understand it today where the ocean water is in [huge] depressions of the surface. Viewed that way the water is in/on the earth. However, the depiction is of a preexistent bottomless sea and the dry land is in the water; the inverse. The "earth" refers to "the land". I prefer the translation "unformed and ...


1

I think you may be reading this passage without its' goal in mind. The point of the creation story is not to record the exact scientific sequence of creation in a journalistic manner - but instead to teach the people of Israel an important lesson about God. This is not a recipe for creation with the exact ingredients, measurements and baking instructions for ...


1

It's easy to say "A day is 24 hours" and that's all there is to it"; however, I see at least a couple textual reasons to make me doubt that what is translated as "day" here means an actual 24-hour day. First, on Day 3, the we are told not that God spoke the vegetation into being, but that He ordered the LAND to produce all types of seed-plants and ...


1

In Exo. 20:9-11, it is written, 9 You shall work six days and do all your work. 10 But the seventh day is the Sabbath of Yahveh your God. You shall not do any work... 11 For Yahveh made heaven and earth in six days, the sea, and all that is in them, and He rested on the seventh day. Therefore, Yahveh blessed the Sabbath day and sanctified it. Would it ...


1

This was always a fascinating thing for me, the creation of light. Gen 1:3 (KJV) And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. The best explanation for me of what light is, is what we now call the electromagnetic spectrum. At this stage only the ability for the existence of light was made, there was no energy to to make darkness or light, ...



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