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13

Firmament The primary reason the word "firmament" has been updated in modern translation (using the term "changed" is incorrect - new translations start with the original language, not the KJV text) is because language changes. While the word was an ordinary one in 1611 meaning something like The arch or vault of heaven overhead, in which the clouds ...


9

The Hebrew text of Gen. 1:1-2 states, א בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ ב וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם First, notice that v. 2 commences with a disjunctive vav, i.e. וְהָאָרֶץ. One website explains the disjunctive relationship as follows: The ...


7

There are several creation accounts in antiquity from two main areas in the fertile crescent; Babylon/Sumer and Egypt. I will attempt to summarize and compare/contrast points of each creation myth with Genesis, so I will apologize at the outset to readers for the long answer. I'm sure the OP did not realize what a tall order this was, and as curiousdannii ...


7

Not poetry, but Prologue Gordon J. Wenham notes in The Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 1: Genesis 1-15 on page 46 ...[Genesis 1:1–2:3] stands apart from the narratives that follow in style and content and makes it an overture to the whole work. On page 50 he continues: Extrabiblical creation stories from the ancient Near East are usually poetic, ...


6

I think the key to translating Genesis 1:2 is not וְר֣וּחַ (we·ruach, "spirit"), but rather מְרַחֶ֖פֶת (me·rachepheth, "moved"). Better understanding the verb will help us better understand the subject. rachaph (the root) is a rare verb. It occurs just three times in the Old Testament: here, Deuteronomy 32:11: Like an eagle that stirs up its nest, ...


6

They fly across the expanse of the heavens. The word פָּנִים pānîm (lit. "faces") is used in "frozen union" with certain prepositions to form constructions that function syntactically as prepositions, linking a verbal idea to a noun.1 That is, they allow a noun to specify something about the nature of the verb. This is no different from other prepositional ...


5

Hebrew ṣelāʽ (thus the correct transliteration) is a clear cognate of Akkadian ṣēlu and Arabic ḍilʽ and ḍilaʽ, all of which primarily mean “rib”, but are also metaphorically used to mean “side”. They are very widely attested in Akkadian and Arabic and leave no doubt as to their meaning. It is a basic Semitic noun for a body part. From a linguistic point of ...


4

I recently answered a similar question, so I will repost my answer here with a few edits: The problem with your interpretation of the word "void" is that it proceeds from a false premise of "Creatio Ex Nilho" (Creation from Nothing) which was a concept that arrived on the scene with Platonic philosophy. This is not to say that this philosophy is wrong ...


4

The Hebrew word for man is אָדָם (adam) or אּישׁ (ish). The "out of man" (מֵאִ֖ישׁ meish, also transliterated me’iysh) in this passage derives from the latter form. Like in Gen 2:23, ish often carries a definite connection with males (as opposed to "mankind"), but has a variety of uses. You can explore the usage of all forms of ish here and meish here. ...


4

The almost universal consensus of critical scholars is that the two creation accounts are from two different sources. The account in Genesis 1:1-2:4a is generally attributed to an anonymous source now known as the Priestly Source. The second account, in Genesis 2:4b-25 is generally attributed to an anonymous source now known as the Yahwist. Leon R. Kass ...


3

A theological answer would indicate that Rabbinic Jewish and early Christian thinkers did not attribute bodily form or sex to God, though most attributed male gender owing to the preponderance of typically masculine imagery and grammatical forms for God they saw in the Bible. Growing gender awareness has challenged traditional assumptions, and most Jewish ...


3

The Hebrews reads הָֽאָדָ֖ם note the article הָֽ ('the') before אָדָם ('man', 'mankind', 'Adam'). Going back to Gen 1:27 we read: So God created man ( אֶת־הָֽאָדָם֙ )in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. ( NKJ) Notice that it is exactly the same term "the man" in both cases (though this is obscured ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Creation myth of Ptah The creation myth of Ptah comes from Memphis which was created as the capitol city for Egypt during the Old Kingdom period by Pharaoh Menes. During the 26th dynasty (672BCE–525BCE; the late period) of Egypt, the Shabaka stone was ...


3

(Continued answer. See the introduction, table of contents and the first part of this answer here.) Ogdoad of Hermopolis The creation myth of the Ogdoad is the oldest creation myth and It is very difficult to study because it is not contained in single volumes like all of the Babylonian myths. Instead, this myth is pieced together from multiple sources of ...


2

The reason for translating this word as "rib" in this passage most likely has to do with Genesis 2:23 in which Adam states "This one at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh" (NET). While you are correct that this word is often translated as chamber, according to the NAS Exhaustive Concordance, the NASB most often translates צֵלָע (tsela) as side ...


2

The Hebrew Phrase נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים In Gen. 2:7, it is written, And Yahveh God formed the man from the dust of the earth, and He blew into his nostrils the (נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים), and the man became a living soul. וַיִּיצֶר יַהְוֶה אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה Whatever ...


1

A belief in two independent sources leads to a modern study of Genesis along the lines described by Leon R Kass: “once we recognize the independence of the two creation stories, we are compelled to adopt a critical principle of reading if we mean to understand each story on its own terms.” (see Dick Harfield’s answer) The danger in this approach to Scripture ...


1

Light has both physical and philosophical aspects. And we have no reason from the language of Genesis 1 to demand that this light was EITHER one OR the other. Every hermeneutic I know of would insist on interpreting this as BOTH physical AND philosophical light. In fact, I suggest that the light created here was nothing less that the very knowledge, word, ...


1

As the question recognises, Hebrew poetry is very different from Western poetry and thus difficult to recognise initially. We have to look for parallel ideas, rather than rhyme and rhythm. Francis S. Collins (The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, page 140) says, "There is no question that this is a powerful and poetic narrative ...


1

It's easy to say "A day is 24 hours" and that's all there is to it"; however, I see at least a couple textual reasons to make me doubt that what is translated as "day" here means an actual 24-hour day. First, on Day 3, the we are told not that God spoke the vegetation into being, but that He ordered the LAND to produce all types of seed-plants and ...


1

In Exo. 20:9-11, it is written, 9 You shall work six days and do all your work. 10 But the seventh day is the Sabbath of Yahveh your God. You shall not do any work... 11 For Yahveh made heaven and earth in six days, the sea, and all that is in them, and He rested on the seventh day. Therefore, Yahveh blessed the Sabbath day and sanctified it. Would it ...


1

I think you may be picturing the planet earth as we understand it today where the ocean water is in [huge] depressions of the surface. Viewed that way the water is in/on the earth. However, the depiction is of a preexistent bottomless sea and the dry land is in the water; the inverse. The "earth" refers to "the land". I prefer the translation "unformed and ...



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